After consideration of the issues of terminology and measurement, additional chapters are devoted to epidemiology, ethical-legal issues, drug and hormone therapy, and nonpharmacological therapies ranging from psychotherapy to ECT. Although support for the usefulness of each form of therapy is claimed, typically the evidence is sparse and limited to reports of a few cases. The contrast in the poor quality of the research on agitation in dementia with the many large double-blind, placebo-controlled drug trials on cognition in dementia is quite striking. The reason is unclear in view of the fact that almost 50% of dementia patients exhibit some form of agitation at any one point in time. A second observation about the literature is that the majority of studies of treatment have been done in nursing homes. Although agitation, particularly wandering and physical aggression, appears to be more common in nursing home populations, agitation poses a much more serious management problem for caregivers who live with a demented person than does cognitive decline. After incontinence, agitation is the second most cited reason for placing a demented relative in a nursing home. If caregivers could be provided with better ways of dealing with agitation, the benefits for them and for the health care system could be substantial. Apparently, however, this sort of research has not been done.