The final five chapters are devoted to discussions of not-yet-solved problems in the field and proposals, including work in progress, that address them. One chapter deals with the role of outcome research in the development and validation of practice guidelines. That connection is obvious, but the thrust of the chapter is to explicate the history and the scope of guideline development in medicine in general and psychiatry in particular. There is a chapter on APA’s Practice Research Network, an ambitious project in which practicing psychiatrists, as opposed to career researchers working in tertiary settings, collaborate to study outcome. The authors refer to studies in other specialties that have been done in real-world practice settings. There are about 200 psychiatrists, nationwide, who are now involved in APA’s effort. The authors anticipate that there will be 1,000 eventually.