Mr. A, a 35-year-old African American, has been suffering from chronic PTSD (DSM-IV) with repetitive flashbacks for 4 years after being shot in the stomach point-blank. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV showed a remitted alcohol dependence but no other axis I comorbidity. After placebo injection, no significant symptoms emerged. After injection of CCK-4, Mr. A developed a full-blown panic attack (DSM-IV criteria) with nausea and abdominal symptoms. Furthermore, he reported 1) having seen himself, as though in a video, back in the posttrauma emergency room; 2) having smelled blood; and 3) having felt a drainage in his stomach for about 45 seconds, beginning approximately 1 minute after the injection of CCK-4.