One particularly interesting aspect of the findings was that measures of inhibited temperament diminished for both groups across the study but failed to show interactions across time, as was seen in the anxiety measures. Several aspects of this result deserve comment. First, it is not surprising that the average trend for children in both groups was in the direction of fewer anxiety disorders overall and reductions in parental reports of the child's inhibitory behaviors. Decades of research have shown a perceptible but modest stability in inhibitory temperament, with many children (presumably because of varying combinations of environmental supports and developmental changes) showing diminished inhibitory behavior over time (3); children selected for inhibited temperament or familial risk do not necessarily progress to overt disorders, an outcome that often affects only a minority of the high-risk group (4). Second, the data are nonetheless consistent with other recent studies showing that behavioral inhibition acts as a substantial risk factor for the subsequent development of anxiety and other internalizing disorders (5). This is true whether the children are identified as offspring of adult patients or through prospective developmental projects (6, 7). The results of Rapee and colleagues' study illustrate the progress that has been made over the past two decades in identifying malleable risk factors for these effects, such as reducing parental overprotective behavior, helping children gradually adapt to anxiogenic situations, and devising feasible interventions to address such risk factors. Third, it is now clear that early internalizing temperament represents a risk factor for early incidence of disorders that can persist throughout the lifespan; epidemiological data show that most adults report the onset of such disorders by the age of 14 (8), and social anxiety disorder in adolescents and young adults is well known as a risk factor for major depressive episode (9). This only adds to the import of Rapee and colleagues' findings.