Unfortunately, from several of these perspectives Biological Psychiatry, edited by Bittar and Bittar, falls short. The book’s purpose and its target audience are never made clear, although I assume the authors intended this to be a textbook for undergraduate or graduate students. No scheme is provided to explain how chapters are grouped or sequenced. Although the editors have enlisted an interesting international group of authors from academic settings and the pharmaceutical industry, they have not done a good job of providing an overall uniformity of target level or voice. As a whole, the 26 chapters do not hang well together. Some chapters are highly informative, well-written "primers," whereas others are pedantic in tone and assume considerable previous knowledge of biological psychiatry on the part of the reader. Some chapters are extensively referenced, whereas others feature short lists of references followed by "recommended" or "selected" readings. Although the editors’ preface is sprinkled with author’s names (in parentheses following allusions to certain studies), not a single citation is provided, so that interested readers would have to go to Index Medicus or Ovid to search out these studies. On the whole, relatively few chapters contain illustrations, schematics, or cartoons, and the book includes no illustrations of brain imaging, electroencephalography, or even a single synapse. Some chapters, e.g., those on child abuse, eating disorders, and homelessness, are remarkably thin on biological issues. Entire areas of importance in biological psychiatry are treated as asides, e.g., anxiety disorders and sleep disorders. There are no chapters on the investigative methods of biological psychiatry. Some authors fail to cover important current work in their respective fields: e.g., the chapter on consciousness neglects the writings of Edelman and Tononi, and the brief section on treatment of anxiety in clinical practice in a chapter on fear and anxiety mechanisms does not even mention the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.