This is not the case. In 1977, Jellinger (3) reviewed the extensive literature on neuropathological changes induced by chronic neuroleptic therapy and noted that under some circumstances, neuroleptics could lead to changes that later might result in irreversible damage, especially in the caudate. As concerns over tardive dyskinesia mounted, more investigators began to pursue the association between structural brain changes, neuroleptics, and dyskinetic movements. By 1987, Waddington et al. (4) noted that eight of 11 systematic studies had found evidence of structural brain changes associated with neuroleptic-induced involuntary movements. In 1992, Dean and Borchardt (5), in a lengthy examination of the risks and the benefits of neuroleptic therapy, reviewed multiple studies performed over the previous two decades that documented ventricular enlargement, striatal atrophy, cellular degeneration, and cognitive impairment in some patients treated with neuroleptics, often in association with tardive dyskinesia.