0
0

Chapter 8. Learning Disorders

Arlene R. Young, Ph.D.; Joseph H. Beitchman, M.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585622986.252472

Sections

Excerpt

Learning disorders are, by definition, heterogeneous as they reflect unexpected failure in distinct academic areas. Disorders in reading, written expression, and mathematics are specific types of learning disorder (LD) as defined by the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000). While comorbidity across learning disorders is notably high, treatments typically target the particular features of each specific type of LD. Nevertheless, a review of the literature indicates that there are guiding principles for treatment that apply to all areas of LD. In this chapter we begin with a discussion of these general guidelines, then describe treatments for specific types of LD, and finally describe the implications of disorders often comorbid with LD. Whereas most academic interventions will take place within the school system or through specialized programming available elsewhere, this chapter focuses on what has been shown to work and what characteristics specific to LD can be effectively targeted for intervention.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

References

Alexander AW, Slinger-Constant A: Current status of treatments for dyslexia: critical review. J Child Neurol 19:744–758, 2004
[PubMed]
 
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Practice parameter for the use of stimulant medications in the treatment of children, adolescents, and adults. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41 (suppl 2):26S–49S, 2002
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000
 
Badian, NA, Ghublikian M: The personal-social characteristics of children with poor mathematical computation skills. J Learn Disabil 16:154–157, 1983
[PubMed]
 
Beitchman JH, Young AR: Learning disorders with a special emphasis on reading disorders: a review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:1020–1032, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Beitchman JH, Adlaf EM, Douglas L, et al: Comorbidity of psychiatric and substance use disorders in late adolescence: a cluster analytic approach. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 27:421–440, 2001a
 
Beitchman JH, Wilson B, Johnson CJ, et al: Fourteen-year follow-up of speech/language-impaired and control children: psychiatric outcome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:75–82, 2001b
 
Berninger VW, Amtmann D: Preventing written expression disabilities through early and continuing assessment and intervention for handwriting and/or spelling problems: research into practice, in Handbook of Learning Disabilities. Edited by Swanson HL, Harris KR, Graham S. New York, Guilford, 2003, pp 345–363
 
Berninger VW, Vaughan KB, Abbott RD, et al: Treatment of handwriting problems in beginning writers: transfer from handwriting to composition. J Educ Psychol 89:652–666, 1997
 
Boetsch EA, Green PA, Pennington BF: Psychosocial correlates of dyslexia across the life span. Dev Psychopathol 8:539–562, 1996
 
Catts HW: The early identification of language-based reading disabilities. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 28:86–89, 1997
 
Compton SN, March JS, Brent D, et al: Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for anxiety and depressive disorders in children and adolescents: an evidence-based medicine review. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43:930–959, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Connor DF, Steingard RJ: New formulations of stimulants for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: therapeutic potential. CNS Drugs 18:1011–1030, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Ehri LC, Nunes SR, Willows DM, et al: Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: evidence from the national reading panel's meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly 36:250–287, 2001
 
Farmer EMZ, Compton SN, Burns BJ, et al: Review of the evidence base for treatment of childhood psychopathology: externalizing disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol 70:1267–1302, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Fazio BB: Mathematical abilities of children with specific language impairment: a 2-year follow-up. J Speech Hear Res 39:839–849, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Fletcher JM, Stuebing KK, Shaywitz BA, et al: Validity of the concept of dyslexia: alternative approaches to definition and classification, in Current Directions in Dyslexia Research. Edited by Van den Bos KP, Siegel LS. Lisse, Netherlands, Swets & Zeitlinger, 1994, pp 31–43
 
Fletcher JM, Lyon GR, Barnes M, et al: Classification of learning disabilities: an evidence-based evaluation, in Identification of Learning Disabilities: Research to Practice. Edited by Bradley R, Danielson L. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002, pp 185–250
 
Fuchs LS, Fuchs D, Prentice K: Responsiveness to mathematical problem-solving instruction: comparing students at risk of mathematics disability with and without risk of reading disability. J Learn Disabil 37:293–306, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Geary DC: Mathematics and learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil 37:4–15, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Geary DC, Hamson CO, Hoard MK: Numerical and arithmetical cognition: a longitudinal study of process and concept deficits in children with learning disability. J Exp Child Psychol 77:236–263, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Gersten R, Jordan NC, Flojo JR: Early identification and interventions for students with mathematics difficulties. J Learn Disabil 38:293–304, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Graham S, Harris KR: Students with learning disabilities and the process of writing: a meta-analysis of SRSD studies, in Handbook of Learning Disabilities. Edited by Swanson HL, Harris KR. New York, Guilford, 2003, pp 323–344
 
Hasselbring TS, Goin LI, Bransford JD: Developing math automaticity in learning handicapped children: the role of computerized drill and practice. Focus on Exceptional Children 20(6):1–7, 1988
 
Howell R, Sidorenko E, Jurica J: The effects of computer use on the acquisition of multiplication facts by a student with learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil 20:336–341, 1987
[PubMed]
 
Huntington DD, Bender WN: Adolescents with learning disabilities at risk? Emotional well-being, depression, suicide. J Learn Disabil 26:159–166, 1993
[PubMed]
 
James EM, Selz M: Neuropsychological bases of common learning and behavior problems in children, in Handbook of Clinical Child Neuropsychology, 2nd Edition. Edited by Reynolds CR, Fletcher-Jansen E. New York, Plenum, 1997, pp 157–179
 
Jensen PS, Hinshaw SP, Swanson JM, et al: Findings from the NIMH multimodal treatment study of ADHD (MTA): implications and applications for primary care providers. J Dev Behav Pediatr 22:60–73, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Jordan NC, Hanich LB, Kaplan D: Arithmetic fact mastery in young children: a longitudinal investigation. J Exp Child Psychol 85:103–119, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Kauffman JM: Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth, 6th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Merrill/Prentice Hall, 1997
 
Lyon GR, Fletcher JM, Barnes MC: Learning disabilities, in Child Psychopathology, 2nd Edition. Edited by Mash EJ, Barkley RA. New York, Guilford, 2003, pp 520–586
 
March J, Silva S, Petrycki S, et al: Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292:807–820, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Maughan B, Rowe R, Loeber R, et al: Reading problems and depressed mood. J Abnorm Child Psychol 31:219–229, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Michelson D, Allen AJ, Busner J, et al: Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 159:1896–1901, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Michelson D, Adler L, Spencer T, et al: Atomoxetine in adults with ADHD: two randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Biol Psychiatry 53:112–120, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Mody M: Phonological basis in reading disability: a review and analysis of the evidence. Reading and Writing 16:21–39, 2003
 
Nation K, Norbury CF: Why reading comprehension fails: insights from developmental disorders. Topics in Language Disorders 25:21–32, 2005
 
Nation K, Snowling MJ: Semantic processing and the development of word-recognition skills: evidence from children with reading comprehension difficulties. J Mem Lang 39:85–101, 1998
 
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence: Depression in children and young people: identification and management in primary, community and secondary care—NICE guideline (Clinical Guideline No. 28). London, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2005
 
National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: an evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction, Bethesda, MD, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000
 
Osman BB: Learning Disabilities and ADHD: A Family Guide to Living and Learning Together. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1997
 
Osman BB: Learning disabilities and the risk of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, in Learning Disabilities: Implications for Psychiatric Treatment. Edited by Greenhill LL. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2000, pp 33–57
 
Robinson CS, Menchetti BM, Torgesen JK: Toward a two-factor theory of one type of mathematics disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 17:81–89, 2002
 
Rourke BP: Arithmetic disabilities, specific and otherwise: a neuropsychological perspective. J Learn Disabil 26:214–226, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Samuels SJ: The method of repeated readings. The Reading Teacher 32:403–408, 1979
 
Scott SS: Determining reasonable academic adjustments for college students with learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil 27:403–412, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Shany MT, Biemiller A: Assisted reading practice: effects on performance for poor readings in grade 3 and 4. Reading Research Quarterly 30:382–395, 1995
 
Shaywitz SE: Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level. New York, Knopf, 2003
 
Silver LB: Learning disorders, in Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 2nd Edition. Edited by Gabbard GO. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1995, pp 123–140
 
Speece DL, Case LP: Classification in context: an alternative approach to identifying early reading disability. J Educ Psychol 93:735–749, 2001
 
Steele MM: Making the case for early identification and intervention for young children at risk for learning disabilities. Early Childhood Education Journal 32:75–79, 2004
 
Stothard SE, Hulme C: A comparison of reading comprehension and decoding difficulties in children, in Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Processes and Intervention. Edited by Cornoldi C, Oakhill J. Mahwah, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1996, pp 93–112
 
Torgesen JK: Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: the lingering problem of treatment resisters. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 15:55–64, 2000
 
Willcutt EG, Pennington BF: Psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents with reading disability. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41:1039–1048, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Young AR, Beitchman JH: Reading and other specific learning difficulties, in Outcomes in Neurodevelopmental and Genetic Disorders. Edited by Howlin P, Udwin O. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp 56–73
 
Young AR, Bowers PG, MacKinnon GE: Effects of prosodic modeling and repeated reading on poor readers' fluency and comprehension. Applied Psycholinguistics 17:59–84, 1996
 
Young AR, Beitchman JH, Johnson C, et al: Young adult academic outcomes in a longitudinal sample of early identified language impaired and control children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43:635–645, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Yuill N, Oakhill J: Effects of inference awareness training on poor reading comprehension. Appl Cogn Psychol 2:33–45, 1988
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 36.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 1.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 2.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 4.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
Read more at Psychiatric News >>
PubMed Articles
Mathematical difficulties in nonverbal learning disability or co-morbid dyscalculia and dyslexia. Dev Neuropsychol 2013;38(6):418-32.doi:10.1080/87565641.2013.817583.
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation