0
0

Chapter 49. Antipsychotic Medications

Christoph U. Correll, M.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623921.470990

Sections

Excerpt

Since their discovery in the 1950s, antipsychotics have become an important pharmacological treatment option for a number of severe mental disorders. In children and adolescents, antipsychotics are increasingly used (Olfson et al. 2006) for both psychotic and nonpsychotic disorders (Findling et al. 2005; Jensen et al. 2007). Emerging data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that antipsychotics have significantly greater efficacy than placebo for pediatric bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and irritability and aggression associated with autistic disorder. Due to physiological developmental differences between children and adults, higher antipsychotic doses per kilogram weight are generally required in pediatric patients to achieve similar serum levels and efficacy, and more frequent dosing per day may be required in younger children (Woods et al. 2002). In addition, pediatric patients appear to be more sensitive to several relevant antipsychotic adverse effects compared with adults (Correll et al. 2006), mandating careful treatment selection and adverse effect monitoring and management in this vulnerable group of patients.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–1. Pharmacokinetic information for first- and second-generation antipsychotics
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–2. Therapeutic and adverse effects of antipsychotic receptor occupancy and abrupt withdrawal
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–3. Indications for antipsychotic use in adults and in children and adolescents
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–4. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–5. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with bipolar disorders
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–6. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–7. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antipsychotics in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders and Tourette's syndrome
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–8. Adverse effect profiles of antipsychotics in children and adolescents
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–9. Suggested monitoring strategies in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic agentsa
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–10. Healthy lifestyle recommendations for children and adolescents in the general and psychiatric populations
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–11. Clinically relevant thresholds for body weight and metabolic parameters in adults and in children and adolescents
Table Reference Number
TABLE 49–12. Suggested adverse effect management strategies in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic agents

References

Aman MG, De Smedt G, Derivan A, et al: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone for the treatment of disruptive behaviors in children with subaverage intelligence. Am J Psychiatry 159:1337–1346, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Aman MG, Binder C, Turgay A: Risperidone effects in the presence/absence of psychostimulant medicine in children with ADHD, other disruptive behavior disorders, and subaverage IQ. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:243–254, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Aman MG, Arnold LE, McDougle CJ, et al: Acute and long-term safety and tolerability of risperidone in children with autism. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 15:869–884, 2005
[PubMed]
 
American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, et al: Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. J Clin Psychiatry 65:267–272, 2004
 
American Medical Association: Expert Committee Recommendations on the Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Recommendations for Treatment of Pediatric Obesity. Chicago, IL, American Medical Association, January 25, 2007. Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/433/ped_obesity_recs.pdf. Accessed March 18, 2008.
 
Ananth J, Parameswaran S, Gunatilake S: Side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Curr Pharm Des 10:2219–2229, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Anderson GM, Scahill L, McCracken JT, et al: Effects of short- and long-term risperidone treatment on prolactin levels in children with autism. Biol Psychiatry 61:545–550, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Armenteros JL, Lewis JE, Davalos M: Risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a placebo-controlled pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:558–565, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Biederman J, Mick E, Hammerness P, et al: Open-label, 8-week trial of olanzapine and risperidone for the treatment of bipolar disorder in preschool-age children. Biol Psychiatry 58:589–594, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Biederman J, Mick E, Spencer T, et al: A prospective open-label treatment trial of ziprasidone monotherapy in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 9:888–894, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Blair J, Scahill L, State M, et al: Electrocardiographic changes in children and adolescents treated with ziprasidone: a prospective study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:73–79, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Buitelaar JK, van der Gaag RJ, Cohen-Kettenis P, et al: A randomized controlled trial of risperidone in the treatment of aggression in hospitalized adolescents with subaverage cognitive abilities. J Clin Psychiatry 62:239–248, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Burris KD, Molski TF, Xu C, et al: Aripiprazole, a novel antipsychotic, is a high-affinity partial agonist at human dopamine D2 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302:381–389, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Calarge CA, Acion L, Kuperman S, et al: Weight gain and metabolic abnormalities during extended risperidone treatment in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 19:101–109, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Campbell M, Small AM, Green WH, et al: Behavioral efficacy of haloperidol and lithium carbonate. A comparison in hospitalized aggressive children with conduct disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:650–656, 1984
[PubMed]
 
Campbell M, Armenteros JL, Malone RP, et al: Neuroleptic-related dyskinesias in autistic children: a prospective, longitudinal study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:835–843, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Chang KD, Nyilas M, Aurang C, et al: Efficacy of aripiprazole in children (10–17 years old) with mania. Poster presented at the 54th annual meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Boston, MA, October 2007
 
Chouinard G, Ross-Chouinard A, Annabel L, et al: The Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale. Can J Neurol Sci 7:233, 1980
 
Connor DF, Fletcher KE, Wood JS: Neuroleptic-related dyskinesias in children and adolescents. J Clin Psychiatry 62:967–974, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Correll CU: Real life switching strategies with second-generation antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry 67:160–161, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Correll CU: Weight gain and metabolic effects of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics in pediatric bipolar disorder: a systematic review and pooled analysis of short-term trials. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:687–700, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Correll CU: Antipsychotic use in children and adolescents: minimizing adverse effects to maximize outcomes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:9–20, 2008a
 
Correll CU: Assessing and maximizing the safety and tolerability of antipsychotics used in the treatment of children and adolescents. J Clin Psychiatry 69(suppl):26–36, 2008b
 
Correll CU: Monitoring and management of antipsychotic-related metabolic and endocrine adverse effects in children and adolescents. Int Rev Psychiatry 20:195–201, 2008c
 
Correll CU, Carlson HE: Endocrine and metabolic adverse effects of psychotropic medications in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:771–791, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Correll CU, Kane JM: One-year tardive dyskinesia rates in children and adolescents treated with second-generation antipsychotics: a systematic review. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17:647–655, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Correll CU, Leucht S, Kane JM: Lower risk for tardive dyskinesia associated with second-generation antipsychotics: a systematic review of 1-year studies. Am J Psychiatry 161:414–425, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Correll CU, Penzner JB, Parikh UH, et al: Recognizing and monitoring adverse events of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 15:177–206, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Correll CU, Nyilas M, Aurang C, et al: Long-term safety and tolerability of aripiprazole in children (10–17 y/o) with bipolar I disorder. Poster presented at the 54th annual meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Boston, MA, October 2007
 
Correll CU, Schenk EM, DelBello MP: Antipsychotic and mood stabilizer efficacy and tolerability in adult and pediatric patients with bipolar I mania: a comparative analysis of acute, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Bipolar Disord, in press
 
DelBello MP, Schwiers ML, Rosenberg HL, et al: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine as adjunctive treatment for adolescent mania. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1216–1223, 2002
[PubMed]
 
DelBello MP, Kowatch RA, Adler CM, et al: A double-blind randomized pilot study comparing quetiapine and divalproex for adolescent mania. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:305–313, 2006
[PubMed]
 
DelBello MP, Findling RL, Earley WR, et al: Efficacy of quetiapine in children and adolescents with bipolar mania: a 3-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Poster presented at the 54th annual meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Boston, MA, October 2007
 
DelBello MP, Findling RL, Wang PP, et al: Efficacy and safety of ziprasidone in pediatric bipolar disorder. Presented at the New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit annual meeting, Phoenix, AZ, May 2008
 
Esposito D, Chouinard G, Hardy P, et al: Successful initiation of clozapine treatment despite morning pseudoneutropenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 9:489–491, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults: Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285:2486–2497, 2001
 
Faulkner G, Cohn T, Remington G: Interventions to reduce weight gain in schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1):CD005148, 2007
 
Fernandez JR, Redden DT, Pietrobelli A, et al: Waist circumference percentiles in nationally representative samples of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American children and adolescents. J Pediatr 145:439–444, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Findling RL, McNamara NK, Branicky LA, et al: A double-blind pilot study of risperidone in the treatment of conduct disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:509–516, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Findling RL, Steiner H, Weller EB: Use of antipsychotics in children and adolescents. J Clin Psychiatry 66(suppl):29–40, 2005
 
Findling RL, Robb AS, Nyilas M, et al: A multiple-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral aripiprazole for treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 165:1432–1441, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Fleischhacker C, Heiser P, Hennighausen K, et al: Clinical drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry: side effects of atypical neuroleptics. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 16:308–316, 2006
 
Fraguas D, Merchán-Naranjo J, Laita P, et al: Metabolic and hormonal side effects in children and adolescents treated with second-generation antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry 69:1166–1175, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Gerbino-Rosen G, Roofeh D, Tompkins D, et al: Hematological adverse events in clozapine-treated children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:1024–1031, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Glassman AH, Bigger JT Jr: Antipsychotic drugs: prolonged QTc interval, torsade de pointes, and sudden death. Am J Psychiatry 158:1774–1782, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Gonzalez-Heydrich J, Raches D, Wilens TE, et al: Retrospective study of hepatic enzyme elevations in children treated with olanzapine, divalproex, and their combination. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:1227–1233, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Greenhill LL, Solomon M, Pleak R, et al: Molindone hydrochloride treatment of hospitalized children with conduct disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 46(8 Pt 2):20–25, 1985
 
Guy W (ed): ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology (Publ ABM 76-338). Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1976, pp 534–537
 
Haas M, Unis AS, Copenhaver M, et al: Efficacy and safety of risperidone in adolescents with schizophrenia. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, San Diego, CA, May 2007
 
Haase HJ: Zur Dosierung von Neuroleptika. Ein Leitfaden für Klinik und Praxis unter besonderer Berücksichtigung psychotisch Kranker. Erlangen, Germany, Perimed Fachbuch-Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1983
 
Hollander E, Wasserman S, Swanson EN, et al: A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of olanzapine in childhood/adolescent pervasive developmental disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 16:541–548, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Hsieh MW, Everhart JE, Byrd-Holt DD, et al: Prevalence of neutropenia in the U.S. population: age, sex, smoking status, and ethnic differences. Ann Intern Med 146:486–492, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Jensen PS, Buitelaar J, Pandina GJ, et al: Management of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with atypical antipsychotics: a systematic review of published clinical trials. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16:104–120, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Kryzhanovskaya L, Schulz SC, McDougle C, et al: Olanzapine versus placebo in adolescents with schizophrenia: a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48:60–70, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Kumra S, Frazier JA, Jacobsen LK, et al: Childhood-onset schizophrenia: a double-blind clozapine-haloperidol comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53:1090–1097, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Kumra S, Herion D, Jacobsen LK, et al: Case study: risperidone-induced hepatotoxicity in pediatric patients. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:701–705, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Kumra S, Kranzler H, Gerbino-Rosen G, et al: Clozapine and "high-dose" olanzapine in refractory early onset schizophrenia: a 12-week randomized and double-blind comparison. Biol Psychiatry 63:524–529, 2008a
 
Kumra S, Oberstar JV, Sikich L, et al: Efficacy and tolerability of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 34:60–71, 2008b
 
Laita P, Cifuentes A, Doll A, et al: Antipsychotic-related abnormal involuntary movements and metabolic and endocrine side effects in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17:487–502, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Lee JM, Okumura MJ, Davis MM, et al: Prevalence and determinants of insulin resistance among US adolescents: a population-based study. Diabetes Care 29:2427–2432, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Luby J, Mrakotsky C, Stalets MM, et al: Risperidone in preschool children with autistic spectrum disorders: an investigation of safety and efficacy. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 16:575–587, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Malone RP, Cater J, Sheikh RM, et al: Olanzapine versus haloperidol in children with autistic disorder: an open pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:887–894, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Malone RP, Maislin G, Choudhury MS, et al: Risperidone treatment in children and adolescents with autism: short- and long-term safety and effectiveness. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:140–147, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Malone RP, Delaney MA, Hyman SB, et al: Ziprasidone in adolescents with autism: an open-label pilot study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17:779–790, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Martin A, L'Ecuyer S: Triglyceride, cholesterol and weight changes among risperidone-treated youths: a retrospective study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 11:129–133, 2002
[PubMed]
 
McDougle CJ, Kem DL, Posey DJ: Case series: use of ziprasidone for maladaptive symptoms in youths with autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:921–927, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Meyer JM: Drug-drug interactions with antipsychotics. CNS Spectr 12(suppl):6–9, 2007
 
Miral S, Gencer O, Inal-Emiroglu FN, et al: Risperidone versus haloperidol in children and adolescents with AD: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 17:1–8, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Nagaraj R, Singhi P, Malhi P: Risperidone in children with autism: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. J Child Neurol 21:450–455, 2006
[PubMed]
 
National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 114:555–576, 2004
 
Olfson M, Blanco C, Liu L, et al: National trends in the outpatient treatment of children and adolescents with antipsychotic drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:679–685, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Pandina G, DelBello M, Kushner S, et al: Risperidone treatment of acute mania in bipolar youth. Poster presented at the 54th annual meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Boston, MA, October 2007
 
Patel NC, Hariparsad M, Matias-Akthar M, et al: Body mass indexes and lipid profiles in hospitalized children and adolescents exposed to atypical antipsychotics. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17:303–311, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Pool D, Bloom W, Mielke DH, et al: A controlled evaluation of loxitane in seventy-five adolescent schizophrenic patients. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 19:99–104, 1976
[PubMed]
 
Rajagopal S: Clozapine, agranulocytosis, and benign ethnic neutropenia. Postgrad Med J 81:545–546, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Ratzoni G, Gothelf D, Brand-Gothelf A, et al: Weight gain associated with olanzapine and risperidone in adolescent patients: a comparative prospective study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:337–343, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Realmuto GM, Erickson WD, Yellin AM, et al: Clinical comparison of thiothixene and thioridazine in schizophrenic adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 141:440–442, 1984
[PubMed]
 
Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network: Risperidone treatment of autistic disorder: longer-term benefits and blinded discontinuation after 6 months. Am J Psychiatry 162:1361–1369, 2005
 
Reyes M, Buitelaar J, Toren P, et al: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone maintenance treatment in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders. Am J Psychiatry 163:402–410, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Safer DJ: A comparison of risperidone-induced weight gain across the age span. J Clin Psychopharmacol 24:429–436, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Sallee FR, Kurlan R, Goetz CG, et al: Ziprasidone treatment of children and adolescents with Tourette's syndrome: a pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:292–299, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Scahill L, Leckman JF, Schultz RT, et al: A placebo-controlled trial of risperidone in Tourette syndrome. Neurology 60:1130–1135, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Shaw P, Sporn A, Gogtay N, et al: Childhood-onset schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized clozapine-olanzapine comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63:721–730, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Shea S, Turgay A, Carroll A, et al: Risperidone in the treatment of disruptive behavioral symptoms in children with autistic and other pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatrics 114:e634–e641, 2004
 
Shim JC, Shin JG, Kelly DL, et al: Adjunctive treatment with a dopamine partial agonist, aripiprazole, for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: a placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 164:1404–1410, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Sikich L, Hamer RM, Bashford RA, et al: A pilot study of risperidone, olanzapine, and haloperidol in psychotic youth: a double-blind, randomized, 8-week trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:133–145, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Sikich L, Frazier JA, McClellan J, et al: Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: findings from the Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS) study. Am J Psychiatry 165:1420–1431, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Simpson GM, Angus JW: A rating scale for extrapyramidal side effects. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 212:11–19, 1970
[PubMed]
 
Snyder R, Turgay A, Aman M, et al: Effects of risperidone on conduct and disruptive behavior disorders in children with subaverage IQs. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1026–1036, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Spencer EK, Kafantaris V, Padron-Gayol MV, et al: Haloperidol in schizophrenic children: early findings from a study in progress. Psychopharmacol Bull 28:183–186, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Sporn A, Gogtay N, Ortiz-Aguayo R, et al: Clozapine-induced neutropenia in children: management with lithium carbonate. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 13:401–404, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Tohen M, Kryzhanovskaya L, Carlson G, et al: Olanzapine versus placebo in the treatment of adolescents with bipolar mania. Am J Psychiatry 164:1547–1556, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Van Bellinghen M, De Troch C: Risperidone in the treatment of behavioral disturbances in children and adolescents with borderline intellectual functioning: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 11:5–13, 2001
 
Wehmeier PM, Schuler-Springorum M, Heiser P, et al: Chart review for potential features of myocarditis, pericarditis, and cardiomyopathy in children and adolescents treated with clozapine. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:267–271, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Whiskey E, Taylor D: Restarting clozapine after neutropenia: evaluating the possibilities and practicalities. CNS Drugs 21:25–35, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Woods SW, Martin A, Spector SG, et al: Effects of development on olanzapine-associated adverse events. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:1439–1446, 2002
[PubMed]
 
+

CME Activity

Add a subscription to complete this activity and earn CME credit.
Sample questions:
1.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes metabolize antipsychotics. The CYP2C19 and 2C9 enzymes are relevant for which of the following antipsychotic medications?
2.
Which of the following antipsychotic medications has the shortest half-life when administered orally?
3.
The degree of receptor occupancy is one of the determinants of an antipsychotic's therapeutic and adverse effects. With a full antagonist, what percentage of dopamine receptor occupancy is needed for antipsychotic efficacy?
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 26.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 36.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 1.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 2.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 3.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
Prevention: Before the break. Nature 2014;508(7494):S12-3.doi:10.1038/508S12a.
Antipsychotics use in children and adolescents: An on-going challenge in clinical practice. J Psychopharmacol 2014;28(7):615-623.doi:10.1177/0269881114533599.
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation