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Chapter 3. Genetic Factors

Thomas W. McAllister, M.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585624201.672184

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Excerpt

Outcome after a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is quite variable and difficult to predict. For example, in clinical practice one can see very different cognitive and functional outcomes in individuals with similar preinjury intellectual and educational backgrounds and seemingly similar degrees of injury. This variability suggests that factors other than injury severity play important roles in outcome. Host genotype might be one such factor.

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Figure 3–1. Scheme of potential mechanisms for genetic modulation of outcome after traumatic brain injury.ACE = angiotension-converting enzyme; BDNF = brain-derived neurotrophic factor; COMT = catechol O-methyltransferase; DAT = dopamine transporter; IL = interleukin; SNP = single-nucleotide polymorphism; TP = tumor suppressor.

Figure 3–2. Organization and location of genetic material in the cell.Source. Reprinted from American Mathematical Society: Molecular Biology and Genetics Primer for Mathematicians. Available at: http://www.ams.org/featurecolumn/archive/primer1.html. Accessed April 10, 2010.

Figure 3–3. Diagram of a chromosome.Source. Reprinted from Genetics Home Reference: Handbook: Help Me Understand Genetics. Available at: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/chromosomestructure. Accessed April 10, 2010. Used with permission.

Figure 3–4. Picture of human chromosomes (karyotype).Source. Reprinted from Genetics Home Reference: Handbook: Help Me Understand Genetics. Available at: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/illustrations/chromosomes. Accessed April 10, 2010. Used with permission.

Figure 3–5. Transcription process. RNA polymerase promotes formation of messenger RNA transcript of DNA.Source. Reprinted from National Human Genome Research Institute: Talking glossary of genetic terms. Available at: http://genome.gov/Glossary/index.cfm?id=197. Accessed April 10, 2010.

Figure 3–6. Diagram of a gene and the process of transcribing the gene into protein.Source. Reprinted from National Institute of General Medical Sciences: The new genetics. Available at: http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/thenewgenetics/images/ch1_intron.jpg. Accessed April 10, 2010. Used with permission.

Figure 3–7. Translation of mRNA to protein.Source. Reprinted from National Human Genome Research Institute: Talking glossary of genetic terms. Available at: http://genome.gov/Glossary/index.cfm?id=200. Accessed April 10, 2010.
Table Reference Number
Table 3–1. Polymorphisms affecting outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI)

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