0
0

Chapter 1. Theoretical Models of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

Peter Fonagy, Ph.D., F.B.A.; Mary Target, Ph.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585623648.366000

Sections

Excerpt

The psychodynamic approach to psychotherapy is best understood not as a single, readily definable entity, but as an umbrella term for a range of therapeutic strategies underpinned by a variety of theoretical models that are designed to treat psychological disorders. The therapeutic strategies and the underpinning theories share common factors, although there are important differences.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

References

Ablon JS, Jones EE: Validity of controlled clinical trials of psychotherapy: findings from the NIMH Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. Am J Psychiatry 159:775–783, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Alliance of Psychodynamic Organizations: Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual. Silver Spring, MD, Interdisciplinary Council on Developmental and Learning Disorders, 2006
 
Arntz A, Appels C, Sieswerda S: Hypervigilance in borderline disorder: a test with the emotional Stroop paradigm. J Personal Disord 14:366–373, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Balint M: The Basic Fault. London, Tavistock, 1968
 
Bateman A, Fonagy P: The effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder—a randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 156:1563–1569, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Bateman A, Fonagy P: Treatment of borderline personality disorder with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization: an 18-month follow-up. Am J Psychiatry 158:36–42, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Bateman AW, Fonagy P: Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Mentalization Based Treatment. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, 2004
 
Beebe B, Lachmann FM: Representation and internalization in infancy: three principles of salience. Psychoanalytic Psychology 11:127–166, 1994
 
Benjamin J: Like Subjects, Love Objects. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1995
 
Benjamin J: The Shadow of the Other: Intersubjectivity and Gender in Psychoanalysis. New York, Routledge, 1998
 
Bibring E: The so-called English School of Psychoanalysis. Psychoanal Q 16:69–93, 1947
 
Bick E: Notes on infant observation in psychoanalytic training. Int J Psychoanal 45:558–566, 1964
[PubMed]
 
Bion WR: Differentiation of the psychotic from the non-psychotic personalities. Int J Psychoanal 38:266–275, 1957
[PubMed]
 
Bion WR: Attacks on linking. Int J Psychoanal 40:308–315, 1959
 
Bion WR: A theory of thinking. Int J Psychoanal 43:306–310, 1962
[PubMed]
 
Birbaumer N, Veit R, Lotze M, et al: Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:799–805, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Blum H: The position and value of extratransference interpretation. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 31:587–618, 1983
[PubMed]
 
Boesky D: The concept of psychic structure. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 36(suppl):113–135, 1988
 
Bolton D, Eley TC, O'Connor TG, et al: Prevalence and genetic and environmental influences on anxiety disorders in 6-year-old twins. Psychol Med 36:335–344, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Bowlby J: A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1988
 
Bradley C: Generativity-stagnation: development of a status model. Dev Rev 17:262–290, 1997
 
Brenner C: Conflict, compromise formation, and structural theory. Psychoanal Q 71:397–417, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Breuer J, Freud S: Studies on hysteria (1893–1895), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol 2. Translated and edited by Strachey J. London, Hogarth Press, 1955, pp 1–319
 
Bromberg PM: Standing in the Spaces. Hillsdale, NJ, Analytic Press, 1998
 
Brown GW, Harris TO, Hepworth C: Loss, humiliation and entrapment among women developing depression: a patient and non-patient comparison. Psychol Med 25:7–21, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Chodorow N: Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory. Cambridge, UK, Polity Press, 1989
 
Clarkin J: Borderline personality disorder, mind and brain: a psychoanalytic perspective. Paper presented at the plenary presentation of the Seventh International Psychoanalytic Association Research Training Program, London, August 10, 2001
 
Clarkin JF, Yeomans FE, Kernberg OF: Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality. New York, Wiley, 1999
 
Clarkin J, Levy KN, Lenzenweger MF, et al: Evaluating three treatments for borderline personality disorder: a multiwave study. Am J Psychiatry 164:922–928, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Crandell LE, Patrick MPH, Hobson RP: 'Still-face' interactions between mothers with borderline personality disorder and their 2-month-old infants. Br J Psychiatry 183:239–247, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Damasio A: The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York, Harcourt Brace, 1999
 
Davies JM: Linking the "pre-analytic" with the postclassical: integration, dissociation, and the multiplicity of unconscious processes. Contemp Psychoanal 32:553–576, 1996
 
Deater-Deckard K, Fulker DW, Plomin R: A genetic study of the family environment in the transition to early adolescence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40:769–795, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Dew SE, Bickman L: Client expectancies about therapy. Ment Health Serv Res 7:21–33, 2005
[PubMed]
 
De Wolff MS, van Ijzendoorn MH: Sensitivity and attachment: a meta-analysis on parental antecedents of infant attachment. Child Dev 68:571–591, 1997
 
Dunn J, Davies LC, O'Connor TG, et al: Parents' and partners' life course and family experiences: links with parent-child relationships in different family settings. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41:955–968, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Ehrenberg DB: The Intimate Edge: Extending the Reach of Psychoanalytic Interaction. New York, WW Norton, 1992
 
Emde RN, Spicer P: Experience in the midst of variation: new horizons for development and psychopathology. Dev Psychopathol 12:313–331, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Emde R, Kubicek L, Oppenheim D: Imaginative reality observed during early language development. Int J Psychoanal 78:115–133, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Erikson EH: Childhood and Society. New York, WW Norton, 1950
 
Fairbairn WRD: An Object-Relations Theory of the Personality. New York, Basic Books, 1952
 
Fairburn CG: Interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa, in New Application of Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Edited by Klerman GL, Weissman MM. New York, Guilford, 1993, pp 353–378
 
Feinberg ME, Button TM, Neiderhiser JM, et al: Parenting and adolescent antisocial behavior and depression: evidence of genotype x parenting environment interaction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:457–465, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Fenichel O: The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. New York, WW Norton, 1945
 
Fonagy P: Irrelevance of infant observations. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 44:404–422, 1996
 
Fonagy P, Target M: Early intervention and the development of self-regulation. Psychoanalytic Inquiry 22:307–335, 2002
 
Fonagy P, Leigh T, Steele M, et al: The relation of attachment status, psychiatric classification, and response to psychotherapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 64:22–31, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Fonagy P, Gergely G, Jurist E, et al: Affect Regulation, Mentalization and the Development of the Self. New York, Other Press, 2002
 
Fonagy P, Roth A, Higgitt A: The outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapy for psychological disorders. Clin Neurosci Res 4:367–377, 2005
 
Fraiberg SH, Adelson E, Shapiro V: Ghosts in the nursery: a psychoanalytic approach to the problem of impaired infant-mother relationships. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 14:387–422, 1975
[PubMed]
 
Frank E, Kupfer DJ, Wagner EF, et al: Efficacy of interpersonal therapy as a maintenance treatment of recurrent depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:1053–1059, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Frank E, Grochocinski VJ, Spanier CA, et al: Interpersonal psychotherapy and antidepressant medication: evaluation of a sequential treatment strategy in women with recurrent major depression. J Clin Psychiatry 61:5157, 2000
 
Freud A: The ego and the mechanisms of defence (1936), in The Writings of Anna Freud, Vol 2. New York, International Universities Press, 1966
 
Freud A: Normality and Pathology in Childhood: Assessments of Development. New York, International Universities Press, 1965
 
Freud A: A psychoanalytic view of developmental psychopathology (1974), in The Writings of Anna Freud, Vol 8. Madison, CT, International Universities Press, 1981, pp 119–136
 
Freud A, Burlingham D: Infants Without Families. New York, International Universities Press, 1944
 
Freud S: The interpretation of dreams (1900), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vols 4 and 5. Translated and edited by Strachey J. London, Hogarth Press, 1953, pp 1–715
 
Freud S: The psychopathology of everyday life (1901), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol 6. Translated and edited by Strachey J. London, Hogarth Press, 1960, pp 1–190
 
Freud S: Jokes and their relation to the unconscious (1905), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol 8. Translated and edited by Strachey J. London, Hogarth Press, 1960, pp 1–236
 
Freud S: Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis, part III: general theory of the neuroses (1917), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol 16. Translated and edited by Strachey J. London, Hogarth Press, 1963, pp 243–463
 
Freud S: Beyond the pleasure principle (1920), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol 18. Translated and edited by Strachey J. London, Hogarth Press, 1955, pp 1–64
 
Freud S: The ego and the id (1923), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol 19. Translated and edited by Strachey J. London, Hogarth Press, 1961, pp 1–59
 
Freud S: New introductory lectures on psycho-analysis (1933[1932]) (Lectures XXIX–XXXV), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol 22. Translated and edited by Strachey J. London, Hogarth Press, 1964, pp 1–182
 
Friedman L: An appreciation of Hans Loewald's "On the Therapeutic Action of Psychoanalysis." Panel presentation at the Association for Psychoanalytic Medicine, New York, NY, December 2, 1986
 
Friedman L: The clinical polarity of object relations concepts. Psychoanal Q 57:667–691, 1988
[PubMed]
 
Gabbard GO, Gunderson JG, Fonagy P: The place of psychoanalytic treatments within psychiatry. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:505–510, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Gallese V, Keysers C, Rizzolatti G: A unifying view of the basis of social cognition. Trends Cogn Sci 8:396–403, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Gergely G: Reapproaching Mahler: new perspectives on normal autism, normal symbiosis, splitting and libidinal object constancy from cognitive developmental theory. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 48:1197–1228, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Gergely G, Watson J: The social biofeedback model of parental affect-mirroring. Int J Psychoanal 77:1181–1212, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Goldstein M, Brendel G, Tuesche, O, et al: Neural substrates of the interaction of emotional stimulus processing and motor inhibitory control: an emotional linguistic go/no-go fMRI study. Neuroimage 36:1026–1040, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Green A: Science and science fiction in infant research, in Clinical and Observational Psychoanalytic Research: Roots of a Controversy. Edited by Sandler J, Sandler AM, Davies R. London, Karnac Books, 2000, pp 41–73
 
Greenberg J: The analyst's participation: a new look. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 49:359–381, discussion: 381–426, 2001
 
Guthrie E, Moorey J, Margison F, et al: Cost-effectiveness of brief psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy in high utilizers of psychiatric services. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:519–526, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Hamilton CE: Continuity and discontinuity of attachment from infancy through adolescence. Child Dev 71:690–694, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Hartmann H: Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation (1939). New York, International Universities Press, 1958
 
Hartmann H, Kris E, Loewenstein R: Comments on the formation of psychic structure. Psychoanal Study Child 2:11–38, 1946
 
Hoffman IZ: Dialectic thinking and therapeutic action in the psychoanalytic process. Psychoanal Q 63:187–218, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Hofstra MB, van der Ende J, Verhulst FC: Child and adolescent problems predict DSM-IV disorders in adulthood: a 14-year follow-up of a Dutch epidemiological sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:182–189, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Horowitz MJ, Eells T, Singer J, et al: Role-relationship models for case formulation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:625–632, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Jacob F: Of Flies, Mice and Men. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1998
 
Jacobson E: The Self and the Object World. New York, International Universities Press, 1964
 
Jaffe J, Beebe B, Feldstein S, et al: Rhythms of dialogue in infancy: coordinated timing in development. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 66(2):1–132, 2001
 
Jung CG: Psychological Types. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1923
 
Kandel ER: A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. Am J Psychiatry 155:457–469, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Kandel ER: Biology and the future of psychoanalysis: a new intellectual framework for psychiatry revisited. Am J Psychiatry 156:505–524, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Kernberg OF: Borderline personality organization. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 15:641–685, 1967
[PubMed]
 
Kernberg OF: Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism. New York, Jason Aronson, 1975
 
Kernberg OF: Object Relations Theory and Clinical Psychoanalysis. New York, Jason Aronson, 1976
 
Kernberg OF: Self, ego, affects and drives. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 30:893–917, 1982
[PubMed]
 
Kernberg OF: Severe Personality Disorders: Psychotherapeutic Strategies. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1984
 
Kernberg OF, Selzer MA, Koenigsberg HW, et al: Psychodynamic Psychotherapy of Borderline Patients. New York, Basic Books, 1989
 
Kernberg O, Clarkin JF, Yeomans FE: A Primer of Transference Focused Psychotherapy for the Borderline Patient. New York, Jason Aronson, 2002
 
Kim-Cohen J, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, et al: Prior juvenile diagnoses in adults with mental disorder: developmental follow-back of a prospective longitudinal cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:709–717, 2003
[PubMed]
 
King-Casas B, Tomlin D, Anen C, et al: Getting to know you: reputation and trust in a two-person economic exchange. Science 308:78–83, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Klein M: A contribution to the psychogenesis of manic-depressive states (1935), in Love, Guilt and Reparation: The Writings of Melanie Klein, Vol 1. London, Hogarth Press, 1975, pp 236–289
 
Klein M: The psychotherapy of the psychoses (1936), in Contributions to Psychoanalysis, 1921–1945. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp 251–253
 
Klein M: Mourning and its relation to manic-depressive states (1940), in Love, Guilt and Reparation: The Writings of Melanie Klein, Vol 1. London, Hogarth Press, 1975, pp 344–369
 
Klein M: Notes on some schizoid mechanisms (1946), in Developments in Psychoanalysis. Edited by Klein M, Heimann P, Isaacs S, et al. London, Hogarth Press, 1952, pp 292–320
 
Klein M: Envy and gratitude (1957), in The Writings of Melanie Klein, Vol 3. London, Hogarth Press, 1975, pp 176–235
 
Klerman GL, Weissman MM, Rounsaville BJ, et al: Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression. New York, Basic Books, 1984
 
Kohut H: The Analysis of the Self. New York, International Universities Press, 1971
 
Kohut H: The Restoration of the Self. Madison, CT, International Universities Press, 1977
 
Kohut H: How Does Analysis Cure? Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, 1984
 
Kramer S, Akhtar S: The developmental context of internalized preoedipal object relations: clinical applications of Mahler's theory of symbiosis and separation-individuation. Psychoanal Q 57:547–576, 1988
[PubMed]
 
Laor N, Wolmer L, Mayes LC, et al: Israeli preschoolers under Scud missile attacks: a developmental perspective on risk-modifying factors. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53:416–423, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Laub JH: The interdependence of school violence with neighborhood and family conditions, in Violence in American Schools: A New Perspective. Edited by Elliot DS, Hamburg B, Williams KR. New York, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp 127–155
 
Leichsenring F, Rabung S, Leibing E: The efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in specific psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:1208–1216, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Levy KN: The implications of attachment theory and research for understanding borderline personality disorder. Dev Psychopathol 17:959–986, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Levy KN, Meehan KB, Kelly KM, et al: Change in attachment patterns and reflective function in a randomized control trial of transference-focused psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol 74:1027–1040, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Livesley WJ, Jang KL, Vernon PA: Phenotypic and genetic structure of traits delineating personality disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55:941–948, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Loewald HW: On internalization, in Papers on Psychoanalysis. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1973, pp 69–86
 
Loewald HW: Instinct theory, object relations and psychic structure formation. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 26:453–506, 1978
 
Mahler MS, Pine F, Bergman A: The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant: Symbiosis and Individuation. New York, Basic Books, 1975
 
Marcia JE: The empirical study of ego identity, in Identity and Development: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Edited by Bosma HA, Graafsma TLG, Grotevant HD, et al. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, 1994, pp 67–80
 
Marenco S, Weinberger DR: The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: following a trail of evidence from cradle to grave. Dev Psychopathol 12:501–527, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Masterson JF: The Real Self: A Developmental, Self, and Object Relations Approach. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1985
 
McLaughlin J: Clinical and theoretical aspects of enactment. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 39:595–614, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Meltzoff AN, Moore MK: Explaining facial imitation: theoretical model. Early Development and Parenting 6:179–192, 1997
 
Meltzoff AN, Moore MK: Infant intersubjectivity: broadening the dialogue to include imitation, identity and intention, in Intersubjective Communication and Emotion in Early Ontogeny. Edited by Braten S. Paris, Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp 47–62
 
Mikulincer M, Shaver PR: Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamics and Change. New York, Guilford, 2007
 
Mitchell SA: Relational Concepts in Psychoanalysis: An Integration. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1988
 
Mitchell SA: Relationality: From Attachment to Intersubjectivity. Hillsdale, NJ, Analytic Press, 2000
 
Mufson L, Dorta KP, Wickramaratne P, et al: A randomized effectiveness trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:577–584, 2004a
 
Mufson L, Gallagher T, Dorta KP, et al: A group adaptation of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Am J Psychother 58:220–237, 2004b
 
O'Connor T: The persisting effects of early experiences on social development, in Developmental Psychopathology, 2nd Edition, Vol 3: Risk, Disorder and Adaptation. Edited by Cicchetti D, Cohen DJ. New York, Wiley, 2006, pp 202–234
 
Ogden T: The analytic third: working with intersubjective clinical facts. Int J Psychoanal 75:3–19, 1994
[PubMed]
 
Orlofsky J: Intimacy status: theory and research, in Ego Identity: A Handbook for Psychosocial Research. Edited by Marcia JE, Waterman AS, Matteson DR, et al. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1993, pp 111–133
 
Panksepp J: Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, 1998
 
Peterfreund E: Information, Systems, and Psychoanalysis: An Evolutionary Biological Approach to Psychoanalytic Theory. New York, International Universities Press, 1971
 
Pine F: Developmental Theory and Clinical Process. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 1985
 
Rangell L: The borderline case. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 3:285–298, 1955
[PubMed]
 
Reich W: Der triebhafte Charakter. Vienna, Internationaler Psychoanalytische Verlag, 1925
 
Reiss D, Neiderhiser J, Hetherington EM, et al: The Relationship Code: Deciphering Genetic and Social Influences on Adolescent Development. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2000
 
Renik O: Analytic interaction: conceptualizing technique in the light of the analyst's irreducible subjectivity. Psychoanal Q 62:553–571, 1993
[PubMed]
 
Rizzolatti G, Craighero L: The mirror-neuron system. Annu Rev Neurosci 27:169–192, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Rosenblatt AD, Thickstun JT: Modern Psychoanalytic Concepts in a General Psychology. Part 1: General Concepts and Principles. Part 2: Motivation. Madison, CT, International Universities Press, 1977
 
Rosenfeld H: Impasse and Interpretation. London, Tavistock, 1987
 
Roth A, Fonagy P (eds): What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research, 2nd Edition. New York, Guilford, 2005
 
Rothbart MK, Ahadi SA, Evans DE: Temperament and personality: origins and outcomes. J Pers Soc Psychol 78:122–135, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Rothbaum F, Pott M, Azuma H, et al: The development of close relationships in Japan and the United States: paths of symbiotic harmony and generative tension. Child Dev 71:1121–1142, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Rutter M, Silberg J, O'Connor T, et al: Genetics and child psychiatry, I: advances in quantitative and molecular genetics. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40:3–18, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Ryle A, Kerr IB: Introducing Cognitive Analytic Therapy: Principles and Practice. Chichester, UK, Wiley, 2002
 
Sandler J: The background of safety. Int J Psychoanal 41:191–198, 1960
 
Sandler J, Rosenblatt B: The concept of the representational world. Psychoanal Study Child 17:128–145, 1962
 
Sandler J, Sandler AM: The past unconscious, the present unconscious, and interpretation of the transference. Psychoanalytic Inquiry 4:367–399, 1984
 
Schore A: Affect Regulation and the Repair of the Self. New York, WW Norton, 2003
 
Seligman S: The developmental perspective in relational psychoanalysis. Contemporary Psychoanalysis 39:477–508, 2003
 
Shapiro DA, Rees A, Barkham M, et al: Effects of treatment duration and severity of depression on the maintenance of gains after cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 63:378–387, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Shaw DS, Gilliom M, Ingoldsby EM, et al: Developmental trajectories of early conduct problems from ages 2 to 10. Paper presented in the Symposium on Developmental Trajectories in Antisocial Behavior From Infancy to Adolescence at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Minneapolis, MN, April 19-22, 2001
 
Shea MT, Elkin I, Imber SD, et al: Course of depressive symptoms over follow-up: findings from the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:782–787, 1992
[PubMed]
 
Shengold L: Insight as metaphor. Psychoanal Study Child 36:289–306, 1981
[PubMed]
 
Shevrin H: Psychoanalysis as the patient: high in feeling, low in energy. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 45:841–864, 1997
[PubMed]
 
Solms M: Dreaming and REM sleep are controlled by different brain mechanisms. Behav Brain Sci 23:843–850, 904–1121 (discussion), 2000
 
Solms M, Turnbull O: The Brain and the Inner World: An Introduction to the Neuroscience of Subjective Experience. New York, Other Press, 2002
 
Spitz RA: A Genetic Field Theory of Ego Formation: Its Implications for Pathology. New York, International Universities Press, 1959
 
Stern DN: The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A View From Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology. New York, Basic Books, 1985
 
Stern DN, Sander LW, Nahum JP, et al: Non-interpretive mechanisms in psychoanalytic therapy: the 'something more' than interpretation. Int J Psychoanal 79(part 5):903–921, 1998
 
Sterzer P, Stadler C, Krebs A, et al: Abnormal neural responses to emotional visual stimuli in adolescents with conduct disorder. Biol Psychiatry 57:7–15, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Sullivan HS: The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New York, WW Norton, 1953
 
Target M, Fonagy P: Playing with reality, II: the development of psychic reality from a theoretical perspective. Int J Psychoanal 77:459–479, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Torgersen S: Genetics of patients with borderline personality disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 23:1–9, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Torgersen S, Lygren S, Oien PA, et al: A twin study of personality disorders. Compr Psychiatry 41:416–425, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Tremblay RE: The origins of youth violence. ISUMA Canadian Journal of Policy Research 1(2, Autumn):19–24, 2000
 
Tremblay RE, Japel C, Perusse D: The search for the age of onset of physical aggression: Rousseau and Bandura revisited. Crim Behav Ment Health 9:8–23, 1999
 
Tronick E: The Neurobehavioral and Social-Emotional Development of Infants and Children. New York, WW Norton, 2007
 
Waters E, Merrick SK, Treboux D, et al: Attachment security from infancy to early adulthood: a 20 year longitudinal study. Child Dev 71:684–689, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Watson JS: Contingency perception and misperception in infancy: some potential implications for attachment. Bull Menninger Clin 65:296–320, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Westen D: The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychol Bull 124:333–371, 1998
 
Westen D, Gabbard GO: Developments in cognitive neuroscience, I: conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 50:53–98, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Willick MS: Psychoanalysis and schizophrenia: a cautionary tale. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 49:27–56, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Winnicott DW: Transitional objects and transitional phenomena. Int J Psychoanal 34:1–9, 1953
 
Winnicott DW: Ego distortion in terms of true and false self (1960), in The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment. New York, International Universities Press, 1965, pp 140–152
 
Winnicott DW: Mirror-role of the mother and family in child development, in The Predicament of the Family: A Psycho-Analytical Symposium. Edited by Lomas P. London, Hogarth Press, 1967, pp 26–33
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 29.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 25.  >
Textbook of Psychotherapeutic Treatments > Chapter 2.  >
Textbook of Psychotherapeutic Treatments > Chapter 3.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation