Evidence for the failure of inhibitory mechanisms in psychiatric illness ranges from the simple to the complex. Patients with schizophrenia typically are unable to suppress physiological reactions to predictable auditory clicks and tones. Hong et al. (p. 61) report that this lack of normal inhibition may reflect more than one dysfunctional process. Among 59 patients, abnormalities in two common measures of inhibition, the startle response and the P50 component of the EEG, often did not occur in the same patient. Leibenluft et al. (p. 52) demonstrated that failed attempts to inhibit motor responses elicited greater activation of the right ventral prefrontal cortex and bilateral striatum in comparison subjects than in children with bipolar disorder. Underactivation in patients could indicate an inability to engage these regions. Immature brain circuitry is one proposed factor in the risk-taking behaviors characteristic of adolescents. Pat-Horenczyk et al. (p. 66) found high levels of risky behavior by Israeli adolescents exposed to frequent threats of terrorist attacks. Boys reported taking more risks than girls, and the association between posttraumatic symptoms and risk taking was stronger for boys. Goldstein et al. (p. 43) found that monetary rewards of varying value elicited a complex pattern of brain responses in healthy subjects but not subjects addicted to cocaine. Further, objective and subjective measures of motivation in the addicted subjects were not correlated, suggesting disrupted perception of their own drive. In an editorial on p. 4, Dr. Marc Potenza outlines the implications of research on impulsivity.