The diagnostic scheme for psychiatric disorders developed by the Department of Psychiatry at Washington University (14), which led to DSM-III, DSM-IV, and DSM-5, is a Kraepelinian nosological model where mental disorders follow the medical model of disease as a set of identifiable symptoms. Jaspers was critical of Kraepelin’s idealization of the medical model of general paralysis of the insane (neurosyphilis) as a model for psychiatric disorders, with each disorder having a unique cause, set of symptoms, course, outcome, and neuropathology. In General Psychopathology, Jaspers proposed that some psychiatric disorders follow the traditional medical model, principally those that were called organic mental disorders in DSM-III. Jaspers called them “known somatic illnesses with psychic disturbances” (“Group I”). Other psychiatric disorders, he proposed, were not medical disorders but variations of normality; Jaspers called these disorders of personality, including “abnormal reactions, neurosis and neurotic syndromes, as well as abnormal personalities and their developments” (“Group III”). Situated between them were the psychoses (“Group II”), which, according to Jaspers, could be distinguished from normality but were not clearly separated from each other—e.g., intermediate cases between schizophrenia and manic-depressive illnesses. Jaspers felt that Kraepelin’s denial of the heterogeneous nature of mental disorders failed to capture some psychiatric disorders correctly (3).