The distinction between infection-associated bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features adds to the ongoing debate of whether prenatal adversities such as infection are specific in terms of their neurodevelopmental and psychopathological sequelae. Which neuropsychiatric diseases, if any, are most strongly associated with prenatal immune adversities such as maternal infection? With advances in epidemiological research, it is becoming increasingly evident that prenatal exposure to infection likely plays a role in the etiology of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia (2, 10–12), autism (14), bipolar disorder (5, 6), mental retardation (15), and cerebral palsy (16). Hence, prenatal exposure to infection may be best viewed as a general vulnerability factor for neurodevelopmental brain disorders rather than a disease-specific risk factor (17), and therefore, significant associations between maternal infection during pregnancy and increased disease risk in the offspring are being revealed even for seemingly remote brain disorders. The adverse effects induced by prenatal infection may reflect an early entry into developmental brain disorders, but the specificity of subsequent disease or symptoms is likely to be influenced by the genetic and environmental context in which the prenatal infectious process occurs (18, 19).