One additional critical strength of the Keshavan et al. article is the clear description and delineation of the strategic targets of the intervention. For the past 30 or more years, cognitive psychologists have differentiated between top-down (global cognitive skills such as executive functioning) and bottom-up (basic cognitive skills such as sensation and perception). The logic of each target for intervention is easy to understand: If you train a global cognitive process, such as teaching patients strategies for planning ahead, you intrinsically exercise many basic skills, such as enhancing their ability to pay attention. This is sometimes called the top-down approach, which contrasts with helping patients enhance their basic skills, such as learning to pay attention to sensory stimuli, as a prerequisite for learning global cognitive tasks. This is referred to as the bottom-up approach.