APA has been blessed with Carol's skilled leadership: her ability to use her energy, intellect, and superb interpersonal skills in her work. Just as she matured from dissident student to nationally recognized educator and mentor, so has she demonstrated the maturity and wisdom needed to lead APA in the challenges of our environment: the impact of the recession, the promise of legislation promoting parity and access to care, and changes in health care delivery. Carol's understanding of leadership and administration as well as substance and her goal-directed perseverance led to her being one of the most productive presidents in my 35-year memory. She has been an effective voice for our profession in Congress, with medical colleagues and with the public. She has withstood harsh criticisms without overpersonalizing, recognizing that if everyone is happy, you probably are not doing something that needs to be done. She has not been deterred by the desire of organizations to avoid the potential pain of change, nor has she settled for easy solutions that seem to satisfy without solving problems. Her dedication to our younger members and her creative focus on the future have been extraordinary.