Part 3 moves on to consider biological mechanisms. Traumatic stressors have effects on the immune system that may increase susceptibility to infections and exacerbations of other diseases as well. The chapter titled "PTSD, Allostatic Load, and Medical Illness" is a must read. "Allostasis" is defined as the organism’s ability to achieve stability through change, namely, by expending and directing energy toward challenges. "Allostatic load" is the cumulative cost to the organism of going through repeated cycles of adaptation, and "allostatic support" refers to mechanisms that confer "resilience" on individuals, making them more resistant to PTSD and other chronic illnesses. Biological abnormalities are associated with chronic stress syndrome, and specific medical problems, many of which involve central and peripheral neuroendocrine activity, are associated with both chronic stress syndrome and PTSD. Here is a framework within which new treatment modalities may be discovered.