Our use of an item set designed for experts allows us to assess constructs that are difficult to capture with self-report measures, however well constructed. For example, the SWAP-II addresses the clinically crucial concept of splitting (dichotomous thinking) in borderline patients with items such as, "When upset, has trouble perceiving both positive and negative qualities in the same person at the same time (e.g., may see others in black or white terms, shift suddenly from seeing someone as caring to seeing him/her as malevolent and intentionally hurtful, etc.)." It assesses subtle forms of thought disturbance that laypeople often overlook (e.g., "Tends to think in concrete terms and interpret things in overly literal ways; has limited ability to appreciate metaphor, analogy, or nuance") and "Thought processes or speech tend to be circumstantial, vague, rambling, disgressive, etc. (e.g., it may be unclear whether he or she is being metaphorical or whether his or her thinking is confused or peculiar"). It assesses defenses and coping strategies that are absent from the five-factor model entirely (e.g., "Tends to see own unacceptable feelings or impulses in other people instead of in himself/herself").