When it comes to identifying dyslexic readers, Shaywitz refreshingly focuses on the patient history instead of relying on standardized testing: "As in other conditions in medicine, the history is the most critical component and is afforded the most respect" (p. 132). Traditionally, school administrators, making special education decisions based exclusively on IQ and reading test scores, have underdiagnosed dyslexia, allowing affected students to fall farther behind their fluently reading classmates. Shaywitz’s attention to the history and her "sea of strengths" approach to helping struggling readers reveal her effectiveness as a caring clinician. Dyslexia impairs the ability to read fluently, but every struggling child has strengths that must be nurtured and encouraged by educators, parents, and clinicians. Furthermore, the significant adults in the life of a struggling reader need to communicate regularly and effectively to provide much-needed support and encouragement. Shaywitz especially champions the role of the "patient, persevering, and positive ‘activist’ parent" (p. 173).