Patients with schizophrenia have abnormalities in the structure and function of synapses, the connections between nerve cells, particularly in a brain region called the hippocampus. However, the evidence is primarily based on studies of the presynaptic terminal and is incomplete. Law et al. (p. 1848) measured the expression of two genes for proteins found in dendrites, the postsynaptic "receivers," and dendritic spines, the protuberances adjacent to most excitatory synapses. Expression of spinophilin (dendritic spine marker), but not microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2; dendrite marker), was lower in the postmortem hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia and patients with mood disorders than in normal subjects. The spinophilin reduction could be due to loss of dendritic spines and//or decreased activity or plasticity of the spines. As spines are the targets of most of the synapses involved in transmission of glutamate, this finding adds to the evidence that glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus is particularly affected in schizophrenia.