Here is a remarkable history that gives answers. The second half of the 19th century saw explosive biomedical growth from discoveries in physics, chemistry, and geology. In England this was centered in field research, integrative biology, and the doctrine of evolution. In Germany the centerpieces were microscopy, the cellular doctrine of Rudolf Virchow, and its application in bacteriology under Robert Koch. Owing to bitter national rivalry that began with Leibniz and Newton, worsened with Jiri Prochaska and Marshall Hall (a nasty accusation of plagiarism concerning spinal reflexes that consigned both men to oblivion), and culminated in World War I, competing scientists practiced widespread biological surround inhibition: knowing and using each others’ work but failing to cite names. This historical pattern came to light recently, after the effects of surgical section of the corpus callosum on cognition were discovered in the United States, when it became apparent that German neuropsychiatrists had recognized callosal agenesis and understood its effects more than half a century earlier. This book remediates that schism by summarizing the remarkable contributions of prewar German neuropsychiatry, which we now accept as matters of common knowledge without questioning where they came from.