Young draws heavily on psychoanalytic developmental models in Schema Therapy. In particular, he develops a theory of "modes" as central to understanding the development and maintenance of maladaptive personality patterns. This theory, and its clinical applications, will look familiar to those with a psychoanalytic background, particularly those acquainted with Paul Federn’s theory of ego states and with Federn’s student Eric Berne, who developed transactional analysis during the 1950s and 1960s. If this derivation is intriguing, there is at least one potentially disturbing implication in basing an ostensibly empirically supported treatment on earlier, psychoanalytically derived models. Young and colleagues make frequent reference to "offending parents" in the etiology of personality disorders, particularly for borderline personality. Although Young speaks of temperament as creating a vulnerability to developing borderline personality, he and his coauthors come close to making parental neglect and abuse an a priori cause of borderline pathology. One is reminded of Fromm-Reichmann’s unfortunate term "the schizophrenogenic mother." Those steeped in an empirical tradition, and Young is among them, must be vigilant to avoid the excesses of earlier, punitive, and erroneous causal attributions.