An example may help to illustrate the complexity of the problems faced. In many parts of the West it is considered unethical to perform a placebo-controlled trial if there is in fact an effective treatment. Recently, an HIV trial was to be conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the problem of AIDS is pandemic. The investigators wished to find out if significantly lower than usual doses of retroviral medications would be more effective than placebo. If in fact this were true, the cost of treatment could be markedly reduced. Was it ethical to withhold the treatment from the placebo control group? Are the potential results of sufficient importance to override these concerns? Clearly, thoughtful individuals could differ in their conclusions. There will always be a tension between the rights of the individual and the rights of the group.