OBJECTIVE: This government-commissioned survey gauged the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling in the general population of Hong Kong and advised the government on preventative and treatment services. METHOD: A modified Chinese version of the DSM-IV Gambling-Behavior Index was administered to 2,004 Hong Kong residents by means of telephone interviews. The respondents were recruited through random sampling. RESULTS: Results showed that 4.0% and 1.8% of the respondents could be classified as problem and pathological gamblers, respectively. Significant differences between the survey sample and the respondents classified as problem and pathological gamblers were found in sex and education. The predictors of problem and pathological gambling were sex, education level, family income, and three specific forms of gambling: betting on horse racing, soccer games, and casino games. CONCLUSIONS: Survey results promoted preventative and treatment services.