To the Editor: We welcome the opportunity to respond to the important points raised by Drs. Waterman and Batra, Lissak, and Grunebaum. First, Drs. Waterman and Batra are concerned that we obfuscated the issue of dualism by suggesting that split treatment (in which a psychiatrist might provide pharmacological treatment and a nonmedical mental health professional might provide psychotherapy) is not representative of a Cartesian-based practice model. They argue that the provision of such services is unrelated to a dualistic approach. Although a two-person model of treatment may certainly be implemented in a way that eschews dualism, it is, in fact, this split treatment model that has led clinicians and the general public to reify an artificial separation of mind and brain. As Drs. Waterman and Batra acknowledge, we are fully aware that psychotherapy should not be artificially relegated to "disorders of the mind" or "psychologically based disorders." However, we feel that a split treatment approach forces clinicians to adopt a conceptual model that strengthens the mind-brain split rather than dissolving the mind-brain barrier. We wish to note also that there is emerging evidence that psychotherapy and psychopharmacology may be affecting the same or similar neural pathways (1).