In terms of treatment, the authors note that much of our character and behavior are products of procedural learning, which are automatic, repetitious, and unconsciously enacted in therapy. The authors suggest that when patients enact these character traits, the traits can be pointed out repeatedly once a therapeutic alliance is established. Neurobiologically, the prefrontal cortex can then gradually modify procedural learning. The work of Sandor Ferenczi and Wilhelm Reich, who recommended a more active psychoanalytic treatment approach than Freud, is also discussed. It must be noted, however, that Freud himself felt that working with the transference and with resistance, which are enacted unconsciously, is more important in psychoanalytic treatment than intellectual insight. We need to listen to the music and not only to the words, as in free-floating attention.