The subject of cancer merits three chapters. It is important to know whether tumors are immunogenic. Virally induced tumors apparently are "most likely" immunogenic, whereas chemically induced tumors most likely are not. Surgery, blood transfusions, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy may affect the immune system. Psychotherapy, relaxation therapy and guided imagery may be of help to patients suffering with cancer, in view of the immune response with cancer. Some studies have suggested increased survival time with psychological intervention. According to the chapter authors, factors affecting immune status can include aging, chronic infection and inflammation, cancer, surgery, malnutrition, overtraining in athletes, noise, smoke, pollution, alcohol, loss of a spouse, unemployment, marital discord, disruption of social support, anticipation of a cancer diagnosis, or caring for a loved one with Alzheimer’s disease. Quite a list. It is important to remember that exposure to chronic stress does not necessarily result in immunosuppression but may lead to adaptation.