For decades, the New York Institute worshipped its immigrant European analysts as direct descendants of Freud. In the educational air there was a "language of magic, of religious experience, of a cult, complete with ecstatic insiders and outsiders envious of Freud’s genius" (p. 135). The training analysis of student candidates resembled a "master-apprentice" model of teaching, and the revered senior analyst acquired an autocratic, almost aristocratic aura. The latter’s theories and clinical style signified absolute truth. Such a model stifled innovation, skepticism, and objective self-scrutiny. Protesters and dissidents emerged who founded the Columbia Psychoanalytic Institute.