We report on an 8-week, open-label trial of six subjects, approved by the University of California at Los Angeles institutional review board. Primary inclusion criteria consisted of outpatient status, female sex, age between 18 and 45 years, onset of major depression in the first 8 postnatal weeks, and scores of 17 or higher on the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and 12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (3). Subjects with an onset of depression during pregnancy, the presence of psychosis, active suicidal ideation, hypothyroidism, or a history of alcohol or substance abuse within the 12 months before screening were excluded from the study. We obtained written informed consent from all subjects after the study had been explained to them. Subjects began fluvoxamine treatment, 50 mg/day, and were followed with weekly clinical interviews and administration of the Hamilton depression rating scale by a blind rater. Over the first 2 weeks of the study, fluvoxamine doses were titrated to 150 mg/day to achieve clinical response with minimal or no side effects. The primary outcome variable was remission, operationalized as a Hamilton depression scale score of 7 or less.