OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore the pathophysiology of weight gain during treatment with olanzapine for schizophrenia. METHOD: The authors used a prospective, controlled, open study comparing body weight, body mass index, and related biological measures in mentally and physically healthy volunteers and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia. Weight, eating behavior, leptin serum levels, body mass index, and body composition were assessed over an 8-week observation period. RESULTS: A significant increase in body weight, leptin serum levels, and percentage of body fat was seen in patients treated with olanzapine, but the drug-free comparison group did not show any significant changes. The weight gain during antipsychotic treatment with olanzapine was mainly attributable to an increase in body fat; patients’ lean body mass did not change. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the original finding that an increase in body fat is mainly responsible for olanzapine-induced weight gain, these findings confirm results obtained in other studies showing increases in body weight and serum leptin levels during treatment with second-generation antipsychotics.