OBJECTIVE: The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to corroborate the postmortem finding of right frontal hypergyria associated with schizophrenia. METHOD: Twelve affected-unaffected sibling pairs from families multiply affected with schizophrenia were studied. Bilateral measurement of the gyrification index, the ratio of the inner and outer surface contours, was performed on three different slices of the prefrontal region. RESULTS: The mean gyrification index on the right side was significantly higher in siblings with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder than in the unaffected siblings. CONCLUSIONS: In this family cohort study, the postmortem finding of right-sided hypergyria in subjects with schizophrenia was replicated in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging. This observation provides further support for a neurodevelopmental mechanism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.