The premise of this book is that people with schizophrenia have deficits in real-life functioning (i.e., maintaining meaningful relationships, keeping productive jobs, and managing their lives independently) and that these aspects are core to recovery-oriented models of treatment. However, positioning social cognition at the core of the factors underlying such functional problems is more slippery ground. Both the definition of social cognition and its relationship with outcome are still controversial. Many different concepts of social cognition are used in the book, but a unifying conceptual framework of social cognition, its boundaries and elements, is lacking, even within the field of social psychology. Recognition, understanding, and processing of emotional information are common to the majority of the definitions. Interpersonal information decoding is incorporated sometimes, and most of the recent definitions incorporate the capacity to effectively apply that knowledge to social interactions. Whether social cognition is a cognitive capacity, a metacognitive capacity (similar to executive functions), or a framework or cognitive bias that colors other cognitive functions is unresolved.