Drs. Zimmerman and Mattia hypothesized that if clinicians hear the results of structured interviews for borderline personality disorder (including information on particular criteria, such as self-mutilation), this influences their diagnoses—a hypothesis with which no one, myself included, would disagree (unless the clinicians have reason to distrust the data provided by the interviewer). In one-half of their sample, clinicians made diagnoses as they normally would, on the basis of an initial intake interview of unspecified length. In this situation, clinicians diagnosed only 0.4% out of 500 outpatients entering their clinic with borderline personality disorder. In the other one-half of the sample, researchers conducted structured interviews, then "presented the case to a psychiatrist who reviewed the findings of the evaluation with the patient," and then made a diagnosis. Under these conditions, 27 out of 59 patients diagnosed as having borderline personality disorder by structured interview were diagnosed with borderline personality disorder by a psychiatrist, and seven more were given a rule-out diagnosis of borderline personality disorder.