We are making clear advances in treating psychiatric syndromes in patients with chronic medical and neurological illnesses. The situation is similar to the one I experienced over the last 15 years in regard to basal ganglia disease, stroke, dementia, and demyelinating illness. We did not recognize or treat the psychiatric comorbidity in these conditions. Currently, there is a wide appreciation for depression, psychosis, and anxiety in these conditions, and they are aggressively treated. It is incumbent on individual psychiatrists and the psychiatric community to educate our colleagues in this area. It is a sad commentary that patients who already have so much going against them may be deprived of life-prolonging treatment because of a lack of awareness of the psychiatric complications of their illness. It is hoped that in 10 years or less we will be able to see the same appreciation of the psychiatric comorbidity of AIDS. With this may come the effective treatment of psychiatric comorbidity and improved compliance with antiviral therapy, with prolonged life expectancy.