OBJECTIVE: The authors’ goal was to replicate a previous finding that smokers have lower brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) levels than comparison nonsmoking subjects and to determine if levels recover after overnight cigarette abstinence. METHOD: Brain MAO-B levels were measured by means of positron emission tomography in six smokers who were scanned twice: 11.3 hours (baseline) and 10 minutes after smoking one cigarette. RESULTS: Average MAO-B levels in smokers in the present study were similar to those found in the previous study and averaged 39% (SD=17) lower than those found in a comparison group of nonsmokers. Brain MAO-B levels did not differ between baseline levels and 10 minutes after smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the need to investigate whether MAO-B inhibition may account for some of the behavioral and epidemiological features of smoking.