OBJECTIVE: The authors’ goal was to determine potential hemodynamic consequences of methylphenidate on functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast. METHOD: BOLD and perfusion changes were recorded from the motor cortex of six healthy subjects while they performed flexion-extension movements of the right index finger (finger tapping) at varying rates before and after oral methylphenidate administration. RESULTS: Functional MRI signals increased monotonically with faster movement rates. Subjects’ heart rates increased modestly after methylphenidate administration, but no changes in finger tapping performance or functional MRI signals were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate does not alter BOLD neural-hemodynamic coupling. Consequently, functional MRI can be used to map neural systems that subserve cognitive operations (e.g., attention and executive processes) in subjects taking methylphenidate.