This book discusses the many problems that beset blacks in the United States. Dr. Norman Brill, a distinguished psychiatrist at the University of California, delivers a candid presentation of opinions from several perspectives about how to explain the continuing social and economic misfortunes of African Americans in this country. One of the central messages may generate disagreement, which is that black people themselves are responsible for some of them. The existence of racism is not denied, but other problems, such as black-on-black crime, are said not to result from racism. Affirmative action is repeatedly criticized, not only in the chapter set aside for the topic. The argument that affirmative action programs encourage the maintenance of a mindset of victimization and hopelessness, ultimately weakening rather than strengthening black self-esteem, fueling white backlash, and Balkanizing the nation, may upset some black leaders. It should be especially thought-provoking in the light of the American Medical Association’s decision, in support of the National Medical Association, to actively oppose anti-affirmative-action laws.