In the last two decades, traumatologists, those who have been investigating the origin and effects of trauma, have emphasized "real" events as the exclusive origin of posttraumatic symptoms. The view that which most professional therapists endorse is Lenore Terr’s view (1) that psychological stress damages as would a "series of blows." Judith Herman (2) represented trauma as an "affliction of the powerless" in which "the victim is rendered helpless by overpowering force." However, the "hammer blow" of trauma as metaphor inevitably must raise the question of, "On what?" After all, a hammer will break glass but may not even mark some materials, and although traumatic events are ubiquitous, relatively few people develop PTSD. Some traumatologists attached to the original DSM-III concept were hesitant about blaming the victim. The examination of "risk factors" for the development of PTSD in itself turns the original concept on its head.