Stanley Jackson, Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry and Medical History at Yale University and the dean of American historians of psychiatry, has now provided a comprehensive history of the models and forms of psychological treatment of mental illness in the West. No matter what the form of psychological intervention, whether Greco-Roman music therapy or psychoanalysis, all stand in the rather straight line of a noninvasive, productive response to the debilitating effects of whatever form of mental illness is defined in the society at any given moment. Whether or not we see the general clinical categories of mental illness as constant over history is not placed at the center of Jackson’s argument here. What is striking about his history is that he focuses on the treatments and not the diseases. Ancient melancholy may not be identical to nineteenth-century depression or late twentieth-century bipolar disorder. What is fascinating in Jackson’s narrative is that, although physicians respond to the illnesses as defined in their time and culture, their psychological approaches have a surprising continuity. The concept of the illness seems somewhat removed from the concept of healing. Psychological treatments are often defined in opposition to forms of somatic intervention, from the potions of the ancient pharmacopoeia, to the "vigorous" cures of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to modern-day drug therapy.