Although torture leads to a great deal of physical and mental suffering, there are few publications based on scientific studies on the subject. Psychiatric and medical interest in torture victims is relatively new in spite of recent figures showing the worldwide magnitude of the problem. "An estimated 112 countries practice torture leading to perhaps 400,000 torture survivors in the United States alone." Interest of physicians in torture grew gradually after World War II, and the organizational medical efforts started many years later, in the 1970s, under the auspices of Amnesty International, a human rights organization whose activities have led to a rise in public awareness. Numerous international declarations and conventions prohibiting human rights violations, however, have not prevented the practice of torture in many countries.