On Jan. 23, 1934, F1, a Hungarian neuropathologist, induced an epileptic seizure in a 33-year-old man with catatonic schizophrenia. After five more seizures in 3 weeks, the psychosis was relieved. The concept of an antagonism between epilepsy and schizophrenia developed when Meduna found greater concentrations of brain glia in patients with epilepsy than in those with schizophrenia (1). His monograph Die Konvulsionstherapie der Schizophrenie(2) described the recovery of more than half of 110 schizophrenic patients with seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (Metrazol). By 1936, pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures were in use throughout the world, and they were later replaced by electrical inductions.