Yet, this was a preliminary study because it was descriptive rather than controlled. Furthermore, the final group size was small and most probably biased by selection, because the more severely ill subjects were excluded—i.e., the 9% that were (at least mildly) mentally retarded. Even if this was meant to control for the usual psychiatric comorbidity of any mental retardation, no explanation was provided for the relatively small percentage of individuals with arrested mental development, which is reported to be about 50% or more in persons with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects (2). In addition, the severity of psychiatric symptoms was not established (by standard means such as self-report and clinician-rated questionnaires). Further studies should address these issues and control for environmental confounders by comparing subjects with fetal alcohol exposure who developed in different environments, as well as subjects with and without fetal alcohol exposure who developed in similar environments. Different alcohol- and non-alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders should also be compared. The long-range (adult) psychiatric impact on the fetus of moderate and binge drinking during pregnancy—which do not result in fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects—should be studied, considering that such maternal alcohol drinking has been empirically associated with learning problems and with the lowering of IQs in children exposed to alcohol in this way during fetal development (3).