I would agree with Drs. Lynn and Vaillant that while Freud’s openness and obvious humanity in the treatment of his patients is refreshing and may have been a major factor in the therapeutic successes he achieved (although his results seemed often quite equivocal), there are other messages we might take from these observations. First, I believe Freud’s behavior highlights the danger of VIP treatment. Freud, as the developer of psychoanalysis, seems to have felt himself above the rules that he set up. When a clinician sees himself or herself as important or skilled, there is a strong inclination to take liberties with treatment. Self-assurance can produce the willingness to take helpful risks but can also evoke the fantasy that "I can do no wrong" and result in dangerous therapeutic bravado. Also, treating a VIP patient can lead a therapist to bend the rules in ways that would otherwise be uncharacteristic, often to the ultimate detriment of the patient.