Accordingly, we analyzed the time to lithium treatment in 345 DSM-IV bipolar I and II disorder patients reported elsewhere with times for additional patients from the same center who had given written informed consent (3). Time from illness onset to maintenance treatment averaged 8.38 years (SD=8.33), at 7.28 years (SD=7.68) versus 10.03 years (SD=9.00) for type I (N=207) versus type II (N=138) syndromes, and 7.02 years (SD=7.32) versus 9.14 years (SD=8.77) in men (N=124) versus women (N=221). Latencies ranged from 6.87 years (SD=7.68) in bipolar I men to 11.00 years (SD=9.51) in bipolar II women, possibly reflecting varying urgency in clinical presentations. We tested for the effects of diagnosis and sex by two-way, log-normalized ANOVA (overall F=6.83, df=2, 342, p=0.0012; for types I and II, F=11.2, df=2, 342, p=0.0009; for sex, F=1.06, df=2, 342, n.s., without significant interaction, F=1.36, df=2, 342, n.s.).