Both studies focus on the intrinsic motivational (salient) aspect of religiousness (2), as opposed to behavioral, cognitive, or perceptual aspects. The operationalization of depression differs for the U.S. study (diagnostic criteria supplemented with four additional symptoms) and the Dutch study (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores higher than 16). Nevertheless, the outcomes are fairly similar: time to first remission in the American study (reached by 54% of the subjects) and percentage permanent remission in the course of 1 year in the Dutch study (35%). Both studies show a strong association between religiousness and remission. The most striking similarity between the two studies, however, concerns the modifying effect of poor physical health. Depressed elderly people with chronic diseases, functional limitations, or symptoms of pain (Dutch study) or those with worsening physical functioning (American study) benefit more from intrinsic religiousness than healthy elderly people.