This asylum retains special importance in the history of mental health services for Native Americans. Under the leadership of the first superintendent, O.C. Gifford (1903 to 1908), the hospital census increased and remained close to the full capacity of 92. The patient population represented nearly 30 Native American tribes from as far as California. Frequent diagnoses included dementia, melancholia, epilepsy, alcoholism, syphilis, "congenital imbecility," and plain "insanity." In the 1920s, the hospital admitted World War I veterans whose native languages had been used in coded allied communication that Germans could not crack. In 1908, Dr. Hummer became the second superintendent. Under his leadership the hospital was expanded. A new brick hospital (at a cost of $35,000) was added in 1916, a dairy and barn ($5,000) in 1917, and 277 acres of farmland in 1926. Purchases for patients included an operating room and hydrotherapeutic equipment. The treatment was provided in a parklike environment. Medications included Dover’s powder, ammonium bromide, and potassium bromide.