Gedo’s enemies will say this book demonstrates that he is grandiose and paranoid or at least "arrogant and elitist" (pp. 274–275). His supporters will insist that he is a brilliant individual who is quite accurate in his observations about colleagues in the psychoanalytic bureaucracy who betrayed him or tried to use him as a "selfobject," in his descriptions of the psychoanalytic civil wars, and, above all, in his clinical knowledge. Certainly, Gedo’s suggested emendations of psychoanalytic theory are carefully thought out and well presented in the series of books and papers listed at the end of this book, which I have followed as they appeared over the years. I have been influenced by them, especially by his notion of "apraxias," in my own practice R2615510CBBDCCCC, pp. 35–36). For Gedo (pp. 187, 222, 263), apraxias are the absence of normal skills or values, which must be taught to the patient in treatment. Such interventions are "beyond interpretation," but Gedo considers them to be crucial to successful psychoanalytic treatment of many types of disorders. Correcting apraxias enables a widening scope of psychoanalysis beyond the treatment of classical oedipal disorders: "At first, it may be necessary to enter into the analysand’s life as an auxiliary who supplies the psychological skills unavailable to the latter" (p. 222).