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Regular Article   |    
A Bibliography of Mental Patients’ Autobiographies: An Update and Classification System
Robert Sommer, Ph.D.; Jennifer S. Clifford, B.S.; John C. Norcross, Ph.D.
Am J Psychiatry 1998;155:1261-1264.
Abstract

Objective: This article brings to the present earlier bibliographies of books written by former mental patients. These books provide an inside view of mental disorder that can be useful in teaching, public education, theory, and research, and they have played a catalyzing role in mental health reform and in theory development. Method: The authors list seven anthologies and 48 autobiographies of former patients published since 1980 and introduce a classification system intended to increase the research value of this important archive.Results: Recent books of this genre show more individuals with a mood disorder and more therapists and more women as authors.Conclusions: The research potential of these books suggests the value of an electronic database for classifying and retrieving the information they contain. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 1261-1264

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Autobiographies written by individuals diagnosed as mentally ill are available in the English language going back at least as far as the fifteenth century. The formats of these books range from privately printed tracts with little or no editing to books issued by major publishers. Several accounts, such as those by Schreber R191559CEJDEHBB and Beers R191559CEJDJEGD, have become classics in mental health education, while others remain largely unknown. There are at least 25 published bibliographies and anthologies R191559CEJBJJII-R191559CEJCDECI, the latter often meant to be used as corollary readings in psychopathology classes. These anthologies have brought the books to the attention of a wide audience of students, practitioners, and the public. Several of the autobiographies have been made into feature films.

Other types of books about individuals with mental disorders, such as biographies, case studies, and fictionalized accounts, can be useful data sources and teaching tools; however, we have chosen to focus on autobiographies for several reasons. First-person narratives provide a valuable archival record of the phenomenology of mental disorder and the changes that have occurred in diagnosis, treatment, and public response over several centuries. This genre views mental disorder from the inside looking out, drawing upon the human capacity for self-description and self-analysis. In this way, memoirs complement research and case studies performed from the outside looking in. The accounts are written in the person’s own words and emphasize issues that the writer, as distinct from a clinician, deems important. The books are interesting to read as narratives with a strong story line. Some authors are celebrities for whom a large amount of biographical information is available, permitting comparison of multiple data sources. The accounts show the disorder in its family and environmental context. The books span different centuries and cultures and include women and men of different ages, occupations, socioeconomic classes, and education, representing a multitude of diagnostic categories and treatment procedures. One can find personal descriptions of exorcism, purging, leeches, insulin coma therapy, ECT, pharmacological treatments from ancient to modern times, various types of psychotherapy, and self-help groups.

In general, the accounts are independent of one another, in that the authors give little indication of having read other books in the same genre. This particularity increases the research value of the autobiographies. Memoirs represent an archival data source amenable to qualitative and quantitative analysis that can be used to test theories. As an example, a systematic tabulation of visual hallucinations described in the autobiographies found that the majority occurred under conditions of reduced sensory input, as when the person was in isolation and sometimes physically restrained (20). Finally, the autobiographies portray mundane aspects of mental hospital life not often discussed in the clinical literature, including clothing policies, noise levels, the palatability of hospital food, visiting regulations, and the general provision of privacy in treatment settings. Some authors are noted writers, poets, and artists capable of portraying in words and drawings, beyond the talents of most clinicians, the inner world of mental illness. The updated listings include novelist William Styron’s moving description of severe depression with its suicidal impulses and songwriter Dory Previn’s haunting lyrics that depict thought disorder in schizophrenia. Autobiographies have been included in the curriculum for training mental health professionals R191559CEJBAEGG. Some cross-validation of accounts written by patients can be found in books and articles by nonpatients, including journalists, psychiatrists, and social scientists, who lived on mental hospital wards as participant observers R191559CEJCJBBH-R191559CEJBADDA.

Almost 40 years ago, the first author and his colleague Humphry Osmond began a systematic compilation of these published narratives R191559CEJCGFEF-R191559CEJEBFFD. For a book to be included, it had to be a first-person narrative by someone who had been hospitalized for a mental disorder. This necessarily excluded fiction, biography, and case studies written by a second party. Collaborative works, such as a book co-authored by a patient and therapist, were acceptable if the patient was specifically listed as an author. At the time, we included only books by individuals who had been hospitalized for mental disorder, in order to avoid being overwhelmed by accounts of anxiety and distress with little basis for making qualitative or quantitative distinctions. In our view, the research value of the list was increased by consistent use of these criteria, even at the cost of excluding sensitive portrayals of mental disorder and treatment, such as Ward’s The Snake PitR191559CEJBBCCA and Plath’s The Bell JarR191559CEJBJHIB, which were technically classified as fiction. A parallel literature exists of first-person accounts by family members that is beyond the scope of this article. Because there are literally hundreds of first-person accounts written by individuals hospitalized for a mental disorder, there seemed little reason to seek out and include marginal cases.

The present article is intended to update earlier lists and to provide a framework for classification and further analysis. As of this date, there have been few attempts to classify the books according to factors other than diagnosis. This is understandable, since previous bibliographies were prepared before widespread use of electronic data processing. The capacity to locate autobiographies written by individuals in specific occupations or social categories and with a particular disorder, e.g., an artist or writer with schizophrenia or a therapist with bipolar disorder, would increase the usefulness of these books for patients and family members. Earlier bibliographies and especially Peterson’s list R191559CEJDEDAI, which is based on his 1977 dissertation, include very few titles published after 1980, so we will use that as our starting date. Because outpatient treatment has become a more feasible option, the updated list waives hospitalization as a criterion in cases in which an individual has been diagnosed with or treated for a major mental disorder or both. Several titles are new editions or reissues of earlier books that had been out of print. In these cases, the earlier publication date is given in parentheses following the date of the current edition.

None of these books can be considered unbiased, objective, or representative. Subjectivity is both their greatest strength and greatest weakness. Similar to earlier bibliographies of this genre, there is an overrepresentation of celebrities and their close relatives; e.g., the current list includes the wife of a presidential candidate, several media figures, and various writers and journalists. Published books cannot be considered representative of all first-person narratives by individuals diagnosed with or treated for mental disorders. In general, publishability requires an author who has name recognition or an interest on the part of a therapist or editor who is able to promote the manuscript. There is selectivity by editors, co-authors, and, in some cases, ghostwriters in the portions of the narratives that are published. If the accounts are anthologized, there is further selectivity in the portions published.

Most of the accounts do not have clear beginnings and ends, with the author’s subsequent life influenced by publication of the book. As a consequence of "coming out" as a person who successfully overcame a mental disorder, several authors became active in mental health education. In this respect the published autobiography is both past and prologue, becoming a significant factor in the future course of the author’s life.

Attesting to the continuing interest in these books, seven anthologies have been published since 1980 R191559CEJEADBI, R191559CEJDGIIHR191559CEJDCHHA, R191559CEJEBFGF, R191559CEJBFJBA, R191559CEJCDECI. By far, the most comprehensive source is Peterson R191559CEJDEDAI, who acknowledges that he was inclined toward inclusiveness in listing titles. Our preference, at least in developing a continuing bibliography of titles for research use, is to maintain strict criteria, for example, excluding fictionalized accounts that are often deliberately (rather than unwittingly) embellished to improve the story line. There is not even an informal prohibition against embellishment in fiction as exists in autobiography. Since there is no shortage of books meeting the strict criteria, there seems little logic in jeopardizing the quality of the informationby including fiction.

We located 48 autobiographies published since 1980 by individuals who described time spent in a mental hospital or who were diagnosed with and treated for schizophrenia or a mood disorder without hospitalization R191559CEJCBJAC-R191559CEJCGBDB. Duration of hospitalization ranged from none R191559CEJCDGHC, R191559CEJCCIDH to more than 20 years R191559CEJCEFII, R191559CEJCDGHC. There are some interesting differences between books published in 1960–1979 and those from the past two decades. The previous list published in this journal R191559CEJEBFFD contained nine accounts of Soviet dissidents confined in mental hospitals, while the updated list has no new books of this type. American publishers in the post-Cold War era appear to have lost interest in the genre, and the practice of confining Russian dissidents in mental hospitals has presumably ended. Relative to the 1960–1979 period, the updated list contains a larger proportion of women authors (75% compared to 41%), and of physician or behavioral scientist authors (nine compared to two in the 1960–1979 period), making this the largest occupational category among authors on the updated list. Fewer recent books are critical of treatment received, and several are very positive. Greater respect for the civil rights of committed patients and improved hospital conditions can be seen in a decrease of complaints regarding unjust confinement and staff brutality.

Collectively, the various bibliographies contain several hundred titles of patient autobiographies published in the English language. For comparison purposes, Alvarez R191559CEJDEHBB listed over 400 titles, the three bibliographies compiled by Sommer and Osmond R191559CEJCGFEF-R191559CEJEBFFD with hospitalization as a criterion contain a total of 150 titles, and Peterson’s list R191559CEJDEDAI presents approximately 305 titles (exact counts are difficult to make, since there are some republications with new titles and other ambiguities). This is a substantial body of material covering many time periods, diagnoses, and treatments. A systematic classification system would enhance the research and educational value of the material, allowing researchers and practitioners to locate historical sources according to treatment and demographic characteristics.

We have developed a four-page structured questionnaire for classifying patient autobiographies according to the book (publication information), the patient (demographic characteristics, diagnosis, attitude toward the illness and treatments), treatments (number, type, duration), and the perceived value of the book for patients or family members. We have used this questionnaire ourselves to rate books on the updated list and have overseen its use by students reading autobiographies as a class assignment. The questionnaire is easy to complete, although there are not-unexpected problems with missing and conflicting information. Unlike a formal interview, writers of autobiography do not cover the same topics in a consistent manner.

Diagnosis is among the thorniest classification issues. Some authors do not mention a diagnosis R191559CEJCEFII, R191559CEJCDGHC or specify a diagnosis given in the hospital but reject it R191559CEJBHBIF. Since the books are life histories covering long periods of time, some list multiple diagnoses with little basis for choosing among them. Other books, written 10 or 20 years following hospitalization, present a revisionist diagnosis, e.g., concluding that because the individual has recovered, the original diagnosis must have been incorrect R191559CEJDFFEE. We have dealt with these issues by recording both the diagnoses given to the patient and the patient’s degree of acceptance of the diagnosis on a 5-point scale ranging from strong disagreement to strong agreement.

We have used this rating system on approximately 20 autobiographies on the updated list. Our long-range goal is to do this for all of the books and make this information available on-line as a precursor to a comprehensive electronic data bank. This is intended to be an interactive system to which others can contribute titles and other information in a standard format. Readers who would like to obtain a copy of the review sheet and a preliminary annotated bibliography can access them on the World Wide Web (http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/sommerr).

No single archive exists of these books. Peterson R191559CEJDEDAI spent several years developing his major bibliography without being able to personally inspect all the titles listed. Some classics have been reprinted and are widely available; others have been excerpted in anthologies; but most are out of print and not easily located. This is particularly true of self-published books, some of which are known primarily from secondary sources. The typical research library will have a selection of titles on the shelves stored in several locations under different headings, e.g., Biography, Psychiatry, Psychology, History, or Social Studies. Many of the out-of-print works can be obtained from sellers of used books, some of whom belong to networks offering computerized lists of titles and prices. However, it would be costly and inefficient for libraries to compete against one another for the limited supply of out-of-print books in order to obtain partial collections. The research potential of these books suggests the value of an indexed, comprehensive collection in a single location. This could lay the basis for an on-line reference system, with books classified by author’s primary diagnoses, number of hospitalizations, treatments described, occupation, and demographic characteristics. An archive might begin with a single diagnostic category, such as mood disorders, and then increase coverage over time.

Received June 25, 1997; revision received Oct. 20, 1997; accepted Jan. 15, 1998. From the Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis; the Department of Psychology, Villanova University, Villanova, Pa.; and the Department of Psychology, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pa.. Address reprint requests to Dr. Sommer, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8686; rosommer@ucdavis.edu (e-mail).

Schreber DP: Memoirs of My Nervous Illness (1903). Edited by Macalpine I, Hunter RR. London, William Dawson, 1955
 
Beers C: A Mind That Found Itself (1908). Garden City, NY, Doubleday, Doran, 1945
 
Alvarez WC: Minds That Came Back. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1961
 
Fadiman J, Kuwman D (eds): Exploring Madness. Monterey, Calif, Brooks-Cole, 1973
 
Friedrich O (ed): Going Crazy. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1975
 
Geller JL, Harris M (eds): Women of the Asylum: Voices From Behind the Walls, 1840–1945. New York, Anchor Press, 1994
 
Glenn M (ed): Voices From the Asylum. New York, Harper & Row, 1974
 
Hirsch S, Adams JK, Frank LR (eds): Madness Network News Reader. San Francisco, Glide Publications, 1974
 
Johnson DM, Dodds N (eds): The Plea for the Silent. London, C Johnson, 1957
 
Kaplan B (ed): The Inner World of Mental Illness. New York, Harper & Row, 1964
 
Landis C: Varieties of Psychopathological Experience. Edited by Mettler FA. New York, Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1964
 
McCaghy C, Skipper JK (eds): In Their Own Behalf: Voices From the Margin. New York, Appleton, 1968
 
Mental Patients Association: Madness Unmasked: Mental Patients Association Creative Writing Book. Vancouver, BC, Canada, Mental Patients Publishing Project, 1973
 
Menninger KA: A Guide to Psychiatric Books, 2nd revised ed. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1956
 
Oakes JG, Kennison D (eds): In the Realms of the Unreal: "Insane" Writings. New York, Four Walls Eight Windows, 1991
 
Peterson D (ed): A Mad People’s History of Madness. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1982
 
Porter R (ed): A Social History of Madness: The World Through the Eyes of the Insane. New York, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988
 
Russell AMB (ed): A Plea for the Insane, by Friends of the Living Dead. Minneapolis, Roberts, 1898
 
Shetler H, Straw P (eds): A New Day: Voices From Across the Land. Arlington, Va, National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, undated
 
Sommer R, Osmond H: Autobiographies of former mental patients. J Ment Sci  1960; 106:648–662
[PubMed]
 
Sommer R, Osmond H: Autobiographies of former mental patients: addendum. J Ment Sci  1961; 107:1030–1032
[PubMed]
 
Sommer R, Osmond H: A bibliography of mental patients’ auto­biographies, 1960–1982. Am J Psychiatry  1983; 140:1051–1054
[PubMed]
 
Stanford G (ed): Strangers to Themselves: Readings on Mental Illness. New York, Bantam Books, 1973
 
Steir C (ed): Blue Jolts: True Stories From the Cuckoo’s Nest. Washington, DC, New Republic Books, 1978
 
Susko MA (ed): Cry of the Invisible: Writings From the Homeless and Survivors of Psychiatric Hospitals. Baltimore, Conservatory Press, 1991
 
Winslow L (ed): Mad Humanity. New York, Mansfield, 1898
 
Wood ME (ed): The Writing on the Wall: Women’s Autobiography and the Asylum. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1994
 
Buckley P, Sander F: The history of psychiatry from the patient’s viewpoint. Am J Psychiatry  1974; 131:1147–1150
[PubMed]
 
Barry A: Bellevue Is a State of Mind. New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971
 
Kroeger B: Nellie Bly: Daredevil, Reporter, Feminist. New York, New York Times Books, 1994
 
Rosenhan DL: On being sane in insane places. Science  1973; 179:250–258
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Dean WN: The reactions of a nonpatient to a stay on a mental hospital ward. Psychiatry  1961; 24:61–68
[PubMed]
 
Rockwell DA: Some observations on "living in." Psychiatry  1971; 34:214–223
[PubMed]
 
Ward MJ: The Snake Pit (1946). New York, New American Library, 1973
 
Plath S: The Bell Jar (1963). New York, Bantam Books, 1971
 
Anderson AE: Pain: The Essence of Mental Illness. Hicksville, NY, Exposition Press, 1980
 
Balter M, Katz R: Nobody’s Child. Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesley, 1991
 
Barnes M, Burke J: Mary Barnes: Two Accounts of a Journey Through Madness. London, Free Association Books, 1991
 
Beattie M: Codependent No More. Center City, Minn, Hazelden Foundation, 1987
 
Berger D, Berger L: We Heard the Angels of Madness: One Family’s Struggle With Manic Depression. New York, William Morrow, 1991
 
Berger L, Vuckovic A: Under Observation: Life Inside a Psychiatric Hospital. New York, Ticknor & Fields, 1994
 
Burke R: When the Music’s Over: My Journey Into Schizophrenia. Edited by Gates R, Hammond R. New York, Basic Books, 1995
 
Cantor C, with Fallon B: Phantom illness: Shattering the Myths of Hypochondria. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1996
 
Castle K, Bechtel S: Katherine, It’s Time: An Incredible Journey Into the World of a Multiple Personality. New York, Harper & Row, 1989
 
Chase T: When Rabbit Howls: The Troops for Truddi Chase. New York, Dutton, 1987
 
Dukakis K, with Srovell J: Now You Know. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1990
 
Duke P, with Hochman G: A Brilliant Madness: Living With Manic-Depressive Illness. New York, Bantam, 1992
 
Duke P, with Turan K: Call Me Anna: The Autobiography of Patty Duke. New York, Bantam Books, 1987
 
Endler NS: Holiday of Darkness. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1990
 
Frame J: An Angel at My Table: An Autobiography. New York, Braziller, 1984
 
Gotkin J, Gotkin P: Too Much Anger, Too Many Tears, revised ed. New York, HarperPerennial, 1992
 
Greally H: Bird’s Nest Soup (1971). Dublin, Attic Press, 1987
 
Hughes JS (ed): The Letters of a Victorian Madwoman. Columbia, University of South Carolina Press, 1993
 
Jamison KR: An Unquiet Mind. New York, Random House, 1995
 
Karp DA: Speaking of Sadness. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996
 
Kaysen S: Girl, Interrupted. New York, Random House, 1993
 
Lee J: Save Me: A Young Woman’s Journey Through Schizophrenia to Health. New York, Doubleday, 1980
 
Levant O: Memoirs of an Amnesiac (1980). Hollywood, Calif, Samuel French, 1989
 
Mairs N: Plaintext Essays of Madness. Tucson, University of Arizona Press, 1986
 
Manning M: Undercurrents: A Therapist’s Reckoning With Her Own Depression. New York, HarperCollins, 1994
 
McKean TA: Soon Will Come the Light: A View From Inside the Autism Puzzle. Arlington, Va, Future Education, 1994
 
Millett K: The Loony-Bin Trip. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1990
 
Mowrer OH: Leaves From Many Seasons: Selected Papers. New York, Praeger, 1983
 
Mundfrom GF: My Experiences With Clinical Depression. Osceola, Wis, Mercy & Truth, 1990
 
Nakhla F, with Jackson G: Picking Up the Pieces: Two Accounts of a Psychoanalytic Journey. New Haven, Conn, Yale University Press, 1993
 
Neugeboren J: Imagining Robert: My Brother, Madness, and Survival, a Memoir. New York, William Morrow, 1997
 
North CL: Welcome, Silence: My Triumph Over Schizophrenia. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1987
 
Previn D: Bog-Trotter. Garden City, NY, Doubleday, 1980
 
Quivers R: Quivers. New York, ReganBooks, 1995
 
Robertson N: Getting Better: Inside Alcoholics Anonymous. New York, William Morrow, 1988
 
Sherman JT: Dreams and Memories. Madison, Wis, Heart’s Desire, 1994
 
Sizemore C: A Mind of My Own. New York, William Morrow, 1989
 
Slater L: Welcome to My Country. New York, Random House, 1996
 
Solomon C: Emergency Messages: An Autobiographical Miscellany. Edited by Tytell J. New York, Paragon House, 1989
 
Styron W: Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness. New York, Random House, 1990
 
Sutherland S: Breakdown, revised ed. London, Oxford University Press, 1987
 
Thomas M: Home From Seven North. San Diego, Libra, 1984
 
Thompson T: The Beast: A Reckoning With Depression. New York, Putnam, 1995
 
Wagner P: Murdered Heiress, Living Witness. Shippensburg, Pa, Destiny Image, 1992
 
Weisskopf-Joelson E (ed): Father, Have I Kept My Promise? Madness as Seen From Within, revised ed. West Lafayette, Ind, Purdue University Press, 1988
 
Williams D: Nobody Nowhere: The Extraordinary Autobiography of an Autistic. New York, New York Times Books, 1992
 
Woodson M, Savage W, Lazalier J (eds): Behind the Door of Delusion (1932). Niwot, University Press of Colorado, 1994
 
Wurtzel E: Prozac Nation: Young and Depressed in America. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1994
 
+

References

Schreber DP: Memoirs of My Nervous Illness (1903). Edited by Macalpine I, Hunter RR. London, William Dawson, 1955
 
Beers C: A Mind That Found Itself (1908). Garden City, NY, Doubleday, Doran, 1945
 
Alvarez WC: Minds That Came Back. Philadelphia, JB Lippincott, 1961
 
Fadiman J, Kuwman D (eds): Exploring Madness. Monterey, Calif, Brooks-Cole, 1973
 
Friedrich O (ed): Going Crazy. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1975
 
Geller JL, Harris M (eds): Women of the Asylum: Voices From Behind the Walls, 1840–1945. New York, Anchor Press, 1994
 
Glenn M (ed): Voices From the Asylum. New York, Harper & Row, 1974
 
Hirsch S, Adams JK, Frank LR (eds): Madness Network News Reader. San Francisco, Glide Publications, 1974
 
Johnson DM, Dodds N (eds): The Plea for the Silent. London, C Johnson, 1957
 
Kaplan B (ed): The Inner World of Mental Illness. New York, Harper & Row, 1964
 
Landis C: Varieties of Psychopathological Experience. Edited by Mettler FA. New York, Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1964
 
McCaghy C, Skipper JK (eds): In Their Own Behalf: Voices From the Margin. New York, Appleton, 1968
 
Mental Patients Association: Madness Unmasked: Mental Patients Association Creative Writing Book. Vancouver, BC, Canada, Mental Patients Publishing Project, 1973
 
Menninger KA: A Guide to Psychiatric Books, 2nd revised ed. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1956
 
Oakes JG, Kennison D (eds): In the Realms of the Unreal: "Insane" Writings. New York, Four Walls Eight Windows, 1991
 
Peterson D (ed): A Mad People’s History of Madness. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1982
 
Porter R (ed): A Social History of Madness: The World Through the Eyes of the Insane. New York, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988
 
Russell AMB (ed): A Plea for the Insane, by Friends of the Living Dead. Minneapolis, Roberts, 1898
 
Shetler H, Straw P (eds): A New Day: Voices From Across the Land. Arlington, Va, National Alliance for the Mentally Ill, undated
 
Sommer R, Osmond H: Autobiographies of former mental patients. J Ment Sci  1960; 106:648–662
[PubMed]
 
Sommer R, Osmond H: Autobiographies of former mental patients: addendum. J Ment Sci  1961; 107:1030–1032
[PubMed]
 
Sommer R, Osmond H: A bibliography of mental patients’ auto­biographies, 1960–1982. Am J Psychiatry  1983; 140:1051–1054
[PubMed]
 
Stanford G (ed): Strangers to Themselves: Readings on Mental Illness. New York, Bantam Books, 1973
 
Steir C (ed): Blue Jolts: True Stories From the Cuckoo’s Nest. Washington, DC, New Republic Books, 1978
 
Susko MA (ed): Cry of the Invisible: Writings From the Homeless and Survivors of Psychiatric Hospitals. Baltimore, Conservatory Press, 1991
 
Winslow L (ed): Mad Humanity. New York, Mansfield, 1898
 
Wood ME (ed): The Writing on the Wall: Women’s Autobiography and the Asylum. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1994
 
Buckley P, Sander F: The history of psychiatry from the patient’s viewpoint. Am J Psychiatry  1974; 131:1147–1150
[PubMed]
 
Barry A: Bellevue Is a State of Mind. New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971
 
Kroeger B: Nellie Bly: Daredevil, Reporter, Feminist. New York, New York Times Books, 1994
 
Rosenhan DL: On being sane in insane places. Science  1973; 179:250–258
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Dean WN: The reactions of a nonpatient to a stay on a mental hospital ward. Psychiatry  1961; 24:61–68
[PubMed]
 
Rockwell DA: Some observations on "living in." Psychiatry  1971; 34:214–223
[PubMed]
 
Ward MJ: The Snake Pit (1946). New York, New American Library, 1973
 
Plath S: The Bell Jar (1963). New York, Bantam Books, 1971
 
Anderson AE: Pain: The Essence of Mental Illness. Hicksville, NY, Exposition Press, 1980
 
Balter M, Katz R: Nobody’s Child. Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesley, 1991
 
Barnes M, Burke J: Mary Barnes: Two Accounts of a Journey Through Madness. London, Free Association Books, 1991
 
Beattie M: Codependent No More. Center City, Minn, Hazelden Foundation, 1987
 
Berger D, Berger L: We Heard the Angels of Madness: One Family’s Struggle With Manic Depression. New York, William Morrow, 1991
 
Berger L, Vuckovic A: Under Observation: Life Inside a Psychiatric Hospital. New York, Ticknor & Fields, 1994
 
Burke R: When the Music’s Over: My Journey Into Schizophrenia. Edited by Gates R, Hammond R. New York, Basic Books, 1995
 
Cantor C, with Fallon B: Phantom illness: Shattering the Myths of Hypochondria. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1996
 
Castle K, Bechtel S: Katherine, It’s Time: An Incredible Journey Into the World of a Multiple Personality. New York, Harper & Row, 1989
 
Chase T: When Rabbit Howls: The Troops for Truddi Chase. New York, Dutton, 1987
 
Dukakis K, with Srovell J: Now You Know. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1990
 
Duke P, with Hochman G: A Brilliant Madness: Living With Manic-Depressive Illness. New York, Bantam, 1992
 
Duke P, with Turan K: Call Me Anna: The Autobiography of Patty Duke. New York, Bantam Books, 1987
 
Endler NS: Holiday of Darkness. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1990
 
Frame J: An Angel at My Table: An Autobiography. New York, Braziller, 1984
 
Gotkin J, Gotkin P: Too Much Anger, Too Many Tears, revised ed. New York, HarperPerennial, 1992
 
Greally H: Bird’s Nest Soup (1971). Dublin, Attic Press, 1987
 
Hughes JS (ed): The Letters of a Victorian Madwoman. Columbia, University of South Carolina Press, 1993
 
Jamison KR: An Unquiet Mind. New York, Random House, 1995
 
Karp DA: Speaking of Sadness. New York, Oxford University Press, 1996
 
Kaysen S: Girl, Interrupted. New York, Random House, 1993
 
Lee J: Save Me: A Young Woman’s Journey Through Schizophrenia to Health. New York, Doubleday, 1980
 
Levant O: Memoirs of an Amnesiac (1980). Hollywood, Calif, Samuel French, 1989
 
Mairs N: Plaintext Essays of Madness. Tucson, University of Arizona Press, 1986
 
Manning M: Undercurrents: A Therapist’s Reckoning With Her Own Depression. New York, HarperCollins, 1994
 
McKean TA: Soon Will Come the Light: A View From Inside the Autism Puzzle. Arlington, Va, Future Education, 1994
 
Millett K: The Loony-Bin Trip. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1990
 
Mowrer OH: Leaves From Many Seasons: Selected Papers. New York, Praeger, 1983
 
Mundfrom GF: My Experiences With Clinical Depression. Osceola, Wis, Mercy & Truth, 1990
 
Nakhla F, with Jackson G: Picking Up the Pieces: Two Accounts of a Psychoanalytic Journey. New Haven, Conn, Yale University Press, 1993
 
Neugeboren J: Imagining Robert: My Brother, Madness, and Survival, a Memoir. New York, William Morrow, 1997
 
North CL: Welcome, Silence: My Triumph Over Schizophrenia. New York, Simon & Schuster, 1987
 
Previn D: Bog-Trotter. Garden City, NY, Doubleday, 1980
 
Quivers R: Quivers. New York, ReganBooks, 1995
 
Robertson N: Getting Better: Inside Alcoholics Anonymous. New York, William Morrow, 1988
 
Sherman JT: Dreams and Memories. Madison, Wis, Heart’s Desire, 1994
 
Sizemore C: A Mind of My Own. New York, William Morrow, 1989
 
Slater L: Welcome to My Country. New York, Random House, 1996
 
Solomon C: Emergency Messages: An Autobiographical Miscellany. Edited by Tytell J. New York, Paragon House, 1989
 
Styron W: Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness. New York, Random House, 1990
 
Sutherland S: Breakdown, revised ed. London, Oxford University Press, 1987
 
Thomas M: Home From Seven North. San Diego, Libra, 1984
 
Thompson T: The Beast: A Reckoning With Depression. New York, Putnam, 1995
 
Wagner P: Murdered Heiress, Living Witness. Shippensburg, Pa, Destiny Image, 1992
 
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