The first chapter in section 3, International Perspectives, is also by David Lester, who developed a small set of predictor variables that were "quite successful" in predicting the suicide rates of 17 industrialized nations. The description of "quite successful" (as cited in the abstract) was reduced to only "moderately successful" in the chapter's discussion section. More specifically, birth and divorce rates, alcohol consumption, percent of elderly in the population, and blood type generated an r of 0.69 in the multiple regression analysis. Sakinofsky and Leenars compared Canadian and U.S. data on suicide and found them generally similar, with slightly higher rates in Canada. Armin Schmidtke presents his perspective on Europe, revealing the apparent enormous differences across countries. He feels that national attitudes toward suicidal behavior are the most important reasons for these wide discrepancies. An interesting note is his reference to Rossow's 1993 article in the journal Addiction, showing that in Norway, from 1911 to 1990, alcohol consumption and divorce were independently and statistically significantly associated with male, but not female, suicide rates. This finding is at variance with Charles Rich's suggestion that the disparity between male and female completed suicide rates in the United States may best be accounted for by the far greater prevalence of alcohol abuse by males. The book's final chapter is by Takahashi, who writes of culture and suicide from a Japanese psychiatrist's perspective. He emphasizes the similarities of suicide across cultures rather than the differences and advocates a rather idiosyncratic clinical approach. His chapter is interesting, but it contains numerous grammatical errors.