Among these chapters, I particularly recommend the two chapters on the neurobiology of opioid dependence, already mentioned, plus the chapter immediately following, in which Kalant offers a provocative hypothesis that drugs as diverse as ethanol, opioids, cocaine, cannabinoids, and benzodiazepines may share common mechanisms of reinforcement and tolerance. It is of interest that 4 years after the material in this chapter was presented, two new studies of cannabinoids (1, 2) have appeared that seem to support Kalant's predictions about common mechanisms of reinforcement. Other interesting chapters discuss the important questions of how to define "relapse" in outcome analyses and the interactive effects of psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for substance abuse. In highlighting these chapters, I do not mean to demean the others; it is simply that they tend to discuss relatively circumscribed topics, such as individual studies or particular public health problems in specific European countries. Among these, for example, are a discussion of intravenous temazepam abuse and intranasal snorting of flunitrazepam in the United Kingdom, results of a methadone substitution trial in Germany, and observations on opiate addiction in pregnancy and the newborn from an Italian clinic. Although these are perfectly reasonable presentations, they may be of little interest to the average American reader.