Zanarini states that "the evidence suggesting a complex etiology for BPD is also strenuously ignored by the clinicians who believe that sexual abuse per se is both a necessary and a sufficient precondition for the development of BPD. Although appealing in its simplicity, this view is simply not consonant with the relevant research findings. No study, including our own, which reports on the childhood experiences of an extremely impaired group of inpatients, has found that all borderline patients report having been sexually abused, and not all sexually abused patients in these studies are borderline" (p. 39). These chapters repeatedly document this and examine the complexity of this disorder, rather than looking for simple answers. The clinical relevance of the studies and their findings will be of interest to all clinicians who assess, diagnose, and treat patients with borderline personality disorder. I felt that the studies dealing with those patients who frequently mutilate or hurt themselves and those who repeatedly attempt suicide provided me with a richer perspective on the meaning of these behaviors than I previously had.